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      I Am Physically and Personality-Wise Warmer When Wearing Round Eyeglasses: Shape Priming Influences Personality Judgments and Estimated Temperature

      * , a , , b
      Psychological Thought
      metaphor, embodied cognition, warmth, competence, eyeglasses

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          Shapes are considered to be related to different personality traits, and particularly, in terms of metaphorical associations, the round shape has been related to the warmth trait, and the square shape to the competence trait. The present study used a pre-post design to replicate these associations. Moreover, it was investigated whether round shapes enhanced the estimation of physical warmth as suggested by contemporary debates on cross-modal correspondences. The results indicated that the round shape increased the perception of warmth (p = .004) and the square shape enhanced the perception of competence (p = .025), which confirmed round-warm and square-competent associations. Furthermore, estimates of the room temperature were higher in the round condition, compared to the square condition (p = .023). The theoretical implications of these findings and directions for further research are discussed.

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          Most cited references23

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          Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.

          This article described three heuristics that are employed in making judgements under uncertainty: (i) representativeness, which is usually employed when people are asked to judge the probability that an object or event A belongs to class or process B; (ii) availability of instances or scenarios, which is often employed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibility of a particular development; and (iii) adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value is available. These heuristics are highly economical and usually effective, but they lead to systematic and predictable errors. A better understanding of these heuristics and of the biases to which they lead could improve judgements and decisions in situations of uncertainty.
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            Crossmodal correspondences: a tutorial review.

            In many everyday situations, our senses are bombarded by many different unisensory signals at any given time. To gain the most veridical, and least variable, estimate of environmental stimuli/properties, we need to combine the individual noisy unisensory perceptual estimates that refer to the same object, while keeping those estimates belonging to different objects or events separate. How, though, does the brain "know" which stimuli to combine? Traditionally, researchers interested in the crossmodal binding problem have focused on the roles that spatial and temporal factors play in modulating multisensory integration. However, crossmodal correspondences between various unisensory features (such as between auditory pitch and visual size) may provide yet another important means of constraining the crossmodal binding problem. A large body of research now shows that people exhibit consistent crossmodal correspondences between many stimulus features in different sensory modalities. For example, people consistently match high-pitched sounds with small, bright objects that are located high up in space. The literature reviewed here supports the view that crossmodal correspondences need to be considered alongside semantic and spatiotemporal congruency, among the key constraints that help our brains solve the crossmodal binding problem.
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              Experiencing physical warmth promotes interpersonal warmth.

              "Warmth" is the most powerful personality trait in social judgment, and attachment theorists have stressed the importance of warm physical contact with caregivers during infancy for healthy relationships in adulthood. Intriguingly, recent research in humans points to the involvement of the insula in the processing of both physical temperature and interpersonal warmth (trust) information. Accordingly, we hypothesized that experiences of physical warmth (or coldness) would increase feelings of interpersonal warmth (or coldness), without the person's awareness of this influence. In study 1, participants who briefly held a cup of hot (versus iced) coffee judged a target person as having a "warmer" personality (generous, caring); in study 2, participants holding a hot (versus cold) therapeutic pad were more likely to choose a gift for a friend instead of for themselves.

                Author and article information

                Psychol Thought
                Psychological Thought
                Psychol. Thought
                09 December 2019
                : 12
                : 2
                : 176-184
                [a ]Graduate School of Psychology, Otemon Gakuin University , Osaka, Japan
                [b ]Department of Psychology, Otemon Gakuin University , Osaka, Japan
                [3]University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania
                [4]South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria
                Author notes
                [* ]2-1-15 Nishiai, Ibaraki City, Osaka 567-8502 Japan. yasu0night.person@ 123456gmail.com

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 15 March 2019
                : 01 April 2019
                Self URI (journal-page): https://journals.psychopen.eu/
                Research Articles

                embodied cognition,eyeglasses,metaphor,warmth,competence
                embodied cognition, eyeglasses, metaphor, warmth, competence


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