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      Oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin leads to uncoupling of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase in hypertension

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          Angiotensin II stimulates NADH and NADPH oxidase activity in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

          The signaling pathways involved in the long-term metabolic effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) in vascular smooth muscle cells are incompletely understood but include the generation of molecules likely to affect oxidase activity. We examined the ability of Ang II to stimulate superoxide anion formation and investigated the identity of the oxidases responsible for its production. Treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells with Ang II for 4 to 6 hours caused a 2.7 +/- 0.4-fold increase in intracellular superoxide anion formation as detected by lucigenin assay. This superoxide appeared to result from activation of both the NADPH and NADH oxidases. NADPH oxidase activity increased from 3.23 +/- 0.61 to 11.80 +/- 1.72 nmol O2-/min per milligram protein after 4 hours of Ang II, whereas NADH oxidase activity increased from 16.76 +/- 2.13 to 45.00 +/- 4.57 nmol O2-/min per milligram protein. The NADPH oxidase activity was stimulated by exogenous phosphatidic and arachidonic acids and was partially inhibited by the specific inhibitor diphenylene iodinium. NADH oxidase activity was increased by arachidonic and linoleic acids, was insensitive to exogenous phosphatidic acid, and was inhibited by high concentrations of quinacrine. Both of these oxidases appear to reside in the plasma membrane, on the basis of migration of the activity after cellular fractionation and their apparent insensitivity to the mitochondrial poison KCN. These observations suggest that Ang II specifically activates enzyme systems that promote superoxide generation and raise the possibility that these pathways function as second messengers for long-term responses, such as hypertrophy or hyperplasia.
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            A stable nonfluorescent derivative of resorufin for the fluorometric determination of trace hydrogen peroxide: applications in detecting the activity of phagocyte NADPH oxidase and other oxidases.

            The enzymatic determination of hydrogen peroxide can be accomplished with high sensitivity and specificity using N-acetyl-3, 7-dihydroxyphenoxazine (Amplex Red), a highly sensitive and chemically stable fluorogenic probe for the enzymatic determination of H2O2. Enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of Amplex Red, which is a colorless and nonfluorescent derivative of dihydroresorufin, produces highly fluorescent resorufin, which has an excitation maximum at 563 nm and emission maximum at 587 nm. The reaction stoichiometry of Amplex Red and H2O2 was determined to be 1:1. This probe allows detection of 5 pmol H2O2 in a 96-well fluorescence microplate assay. When applied to the measurement of NADPH oxidase activation, the Amplex Red assay can detect H2O2 release from as few as 2000 phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated neutrophils with a sensitivity 5- to 20-fold greater than that attained in the scopoletin assay under the same experimental conditions. Furthermore, the oxidase-catalyzed assay using Amplex Red results in an increase in fluorescence on oxidation rather than a decrease in fluorescence as in the scopoletin assay. In comparison with other fluorometric and spectrophotometric assays for the detection of monoamine oxidase and glucose oxidase, this probe is also found to be more sensitive. Given its high sensitivity and specificity, Amplex Red should have a broad application for the measurement of H2O2 in a variety of oxidase-mediated reactions and very low levels of H2O2 in food, environmental waters, and consumer products. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.
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              Nitric oxide: an endogenous modulator of leukocyte adhesion.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Investigation
                J. Clin. Invest.
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                0021-9738
                April 15 2003
                April 15 2003
                : 111
                : 8
                : 1201-1209
                Article
                10.1172/JCI200314172
                19bb7002-590d-410c-bef1-432b32a3f875
                © 2003
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.jci.org/articles/view/14172

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