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      Left Atrial Pressure Monitoring With an Implantable Wireless Pressure Sensor After Implantation of a Left Ventricular Assist Device

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          Abstract

          After implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD), left atrial pressure (LAP) monitoring allows for the precise management of intravascular volume, inotropic therapy, and pump speed. In this case series of 4 LVAD recipients, we report the first clinical use of this wireless pressure sensor for the long-term monitoring of LAP during LVAD support. A wireless microelectromechanical system pressure sensor (Titan, ISS Inc., Ypsilanti, MI) was placed in the left atrium in four patients at the time of LVAD implantation. Titan sensor LAP was measured in all four patients on the intensive care unit and in three patients at home. Ramped speed tests were performed using LAP and echocardiography in three patients. The left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (cm), flow (L/min), power consumption (W), and blood pressure (mm Hg) were measured at each step. Measurements were performed over 36, 84, 137, and 180 days, respectively. The three discharged patients had equipment at home and were able to perform daily recordings. There were significant correlations between sensor pressure and pump speed, LV and LA size and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, respectively ( r = 0.92–0.99, p < 0.05). There was no device failure, and there were no adverse consequences of its use.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Advanced heart failure treated with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device.

          Patients with advanced heart failure have improved survival rates and quality of life when treated with implanted pulsatile-flow left ventricular assist devices as compared with medical therapy. New continuous-flow devices are smaller and may be more durable than the pulsatile-flow devices. In this randomized trial, we enrolled patients with advanced heart failure who were ineligible for transplantation, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo implantation of a continuous-flow device (134 patients) or the currently approved pulsatile-flow device (66 patients). The primary composite end point was, at 2 years, survival free from disabling stroke and reoperation to repair or replace the device. Secondary end points included survival, frequency of adverse events, the quality of life, and functional capacity. Preoperative characteristics were similar in the two treatment groups, with a median age of 64 years (range, 26 to 81), a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 17%, and nearly 80% of patients receiving intravenous inotropic agents. The primary composite end point was achieved in more patients with continuous-flow devices than with pulsatile-flow devices (62 of 134 [46%] vs. 7 of 66 [11%]; P<0.001; hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.54; P<0.001), and patients with continuous-flow devices had superior actuarial survival rates at 2 years (58% vs. 24%, P=0.008). Adverse events and device replacements were less frequent in patients with the continuous-flow device. The quality of life and functional capacity improved significantly in both groups. Treatment with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device in patients with advanced heart failure significantly improved the probability of survival free from stroke and device failure at 2 years as compared with a pulsatile device. Both devices significantly improved the quality of life and functional capacity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00121485.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Extended mechanical circulatory support with a continuous-flow rotary left ventricular assist device.

            This study sought to evaluate the use of a continuous-flow rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as a bridge to heart transplantation. LVAD therapy is an established treatment modality for patients with advanced heart failure. Pulsatile LVADs have limitations in design precluding their use for extended support. Continuous-flow rotary LVADs represent an innovative design with potential for small size and greater reliability by simplification of the pumping mechanism. In a prospective, multicenter study, 281 patients urgently listed (United Network of Organ Sharing status 1A or 1B) for heart transplantation underwent implantation of a continuous-flow LVAD. Survival and transplantation rates were assessed at 18 months. Patients were assessed for adverse events throughout the study and for quality of life, functional status, and organ function for 6 months. Of 281 patients, 222 (79%) underwent transplantation, LVAD removal for cardiac recovery, or had ongoing LVAD support at 18-month follow-up. Actuarial survival on support was 72% (95% confidence interval: 65% to 79%) at 18 months. At 6 months, there were significant improvements in functional status and 6-min walk test (from 0% to 83% of patients in New York Heart Association functional class I or II and from 13% to 89% of patients completing a 6-min walk test) and in quality of life (mean values improved 41% with Minnesota Living With Heart Failure and 75% with Kansas City Cardiomyopathy questionnaires). Major adverse events included bleeding, stroke, right heart failure, and percutaneous lead infection. Pump thrombosis occurred in 4 patients. A continuous-flow LVAD provides effective hemodynamic support for at least 18 months in patients awaiting transplantation, with improved functional status and quality of life. (Thoratec HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist System [LVAS] for Bridge to Cardiac Transplantation; NCT00121472).
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              HeartWare ventricular assist system for bridge to transplant: combined results of the bridge to transplant and continued access protocol trial.

              The HeartWare Ventricular Assist System (HeartWare Inc, Framingmam, MA) is a miniaturized implantable, centrifugal design, continuous-flow blood pump. The pivotal bridge to transplant and continued access protocols trials have enrolled patients with advanced heart failure in a bridge-to-transplant indication.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ASAIO J
                ASAIO J
                MAT
                Asaio Journal
                Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
                1058-2916
                1538-943X
                September 2017
                31 August 2017
                : 63
                : 5
                : e60-e65
                Affiliations
                From the [* ]Departments of Cardiology and Medicine and Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden; []Departments of Clinical Physiology and Medicine and Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden; and []Departments of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery and Medicine and Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Laila Hubbert, MD, PhD, Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, SE-581 85 Linkoping, Sweden. Email: laila.hubbert@ 123456liu.se .
                Article
                00028
                10.1097/MAT.0000000000000451
                5585124
                27676410
                Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

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