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      Inflammation and cardiovascular disease: From mechanisms to therapeutics

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          Abstract

          Inflammation constitutes a complex, highly conserved cascade of molecular and cellular events. Inflammation has been labeled as “the fire within,” is highly regulated, and is critical to host defense and tissue repair. In general, inflammation is beneficial and has evolved to promote survival. However, inflammation can also be maladaptive when chronically activated and sustained, leading to progressive tissue injury and reduced survival. Examples of a maladaptive response include rheumatologic disease and atherosclerosis. Despite evidence gathered by Virchow over 100 years ago showing that inflammatory white cells play a role in atherogenesis, atherosclerosis was until recently viewed as a disease of passive cholesterol accumulation in the subendothelial space. This view has been supplanted by considerable basic scientific and clinical evidence demonstrating that every step of atherogenesis, from the development of endothelial cell dysfunction to foam cell formation, plaque formation and progression, and ultimately plaque rupture stemming from architectural instability, is driven by the cytokines, interleukins, and cellular constituents of the inflammatory response. Herein we provide an overview of the role of inflammation in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, discuss the predictive value of various biomarkers involved in inflammation, and summarize recent clinical trials that evaluated the capacity of various pharmacologic interventions to attenuate the intensity of inflammation and impact risk for acute cardiovascular events.

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          Most cited references 233

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          Antiinflammatory Therapy with Canakinumab for Atherosclerotic Disease.

          Experimental and clinical data suggest that reducing inflammation without affecting lipid levels may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis has remained unproved.
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            Commensal microbe-derived butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic regulatory T cells.

            Gut commensal microbes shape the mucosal immune system by regulating the differentiation and expansion of several types of T cell. Clostridia, a dominant class of commensal microbe, can induce colonic regulatory T (Treg) cells, which have a central role in the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which commensal microbes induce colonic Treg cells have been unclear. Here we show that a large bowel microbial fermentation product, butyrate, induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells in mice. A comparative NMR-based metabolome analysis suggests that the luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids positively correlates with the number of Treg cells in the colon. Among short-chain fatty acids, butyrate induced the differentiation of Treg cells in vitro and in vivo, and ameliorated the development of colitis induced by adoptive transfer of CD4(+) CD45RB(hi) T cells in Rag1(-/-) mice. Treatment of naive T cells under the Treg-cell-polarizing conditions with butyrate enhanced histone H3 acetylation in the promoter and conserved non-coding sequence regions of the Foxp3 locus, suggesting a possible mechanism for how microbial-derived butyrate regulates the differentiation of Treg cells. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which host-microbe interactions establish immunological homeostasis in the gut.
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              Overview of MicroRNA Biogenesis, Mechanisms of Actions, and Circulation

              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression. The majority of miRNAs are transcribed from DNA sequences into primary miRNAs and processed into precursor miRNAs, and finally mature miRNAs. In most cases, miRNAs interact with the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of target mRNAs to induce mRNA degradation and translational repression. However, interaction of miRNAs with other regions, including the 5′ UTR, coding sequence, and gene promoters, have also been reported. Under certain conditions, miRNAs can also activate translation or regulate transcription. The interaction of miRNAs with their target genes is dynamic and dependent on many factors, such as subcellular location of miRNAs, the abundancy of miRNAs and target mRNAs, and the affinity of miRNA-mRNA interactions. miRNAs can be secreted into extracellular fluids and transported to target cells via vesicles, such as exosomes, or by binding to proteins, including Argonautes. Extracellular miRNAs function as chemical messengers to mediate cell-cell communication. In this review, we provide an update on canonical and non-canonical miRNA biogenesis pathways and various mechanisms underlying miRNA-mediated gene regulations. We also summarize the current knowledge of the dynamics of miRNA action and of the secretion, transfer, and uptake of extracellular miRNAs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Am J Prev Cardiol
                Am J Prev Cardiol
                American Journal of Preventive Cardiology
                Elsevier
                2666-6677
                21 November 2020
                December 2020
                21 November 2020
                : 4
                Affiliations
                From the Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. peter.toth@ 123456cghmc.com
                Article
                S2666-6677(20)30130-6 100130
                10.1016/j.ajpc.2020.100130
                8315628
                34327481
                © 2020 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                State-of-the-Art Review

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