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      The Current Health and Wellbeing of the Survivors of the Rana Plaza Building Collapse in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Study

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          Abstract

          This study aims to identify the ongoing physical and psychological health vulnerabilities of the readymade garment (RMG) factory workers involved in the Rana Plaza building collapse in 2013, along with their experiences within the current socioeconomic and political contexts of Bangladesh. Seventeen Rana Plaza survivors participated in unstructured, face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Interviews were thematically analyzed using Haddon’s matrix to examine pre-event, event, and post-event injury experiences. The collapse of the Rana Plaza building resulted in significant physical and emotional trauma for those who survived the event. The majority of the participants were forced to attend work on the day of the collapse. Participants reported physical health complaints related to bone injuries/fractures and amputation, severe headache, kidney problems, and functional difficulties. In addition to the reported physical health issues, the participants revealed psychological health issues including trauma, depression and suicidal ideation, sleep disorders, anxiety, and sudden anger. Participants described barriers to their potential for re-employment in the RMG sector and outlined their limited access to free healthcare for follow-up treatment. Those who survived the collapse of the Rana Plaza building continue to experience significant adverse physical and emotional outcomes related to the disaster. Yet, they have little recourse to ensure the availability of adequate health care and rehabilitation. Given the international reliance on the Bangladeshi RMG industry, continued pressure to ensure care is provided for these survivors, and to reduce the risk of future disasters, is necessary.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Mental Health and Related Factors after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

          Mental health is one of the most important issues facing disaster survivors. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and correlates of mental health problems in survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami at 6–11 months after the disaster. The questionnaire and notification were sent to the survivors in three municipalities in the Tohoku area of the Northern part of Honshu, Japan’s largest island, between September 2011 and February 2012. Questionnaires were sent to 12,772, 11,411, and 18,648 residents in the Yamada, Otsuchi, and Rikuzentakata municipalities, respectively. Residents were asked to bring the completed questionnaires to their health check-ups. A total of 11,124 or (26.0%) of them underwent health check-ups, and 10,198 were enrolled. We excluded 179 for whom a K6 score was missing and two who were both 17 years of age, which left 10,025 study participants (3,934 male and 6,091 female, mean age 61.0 years). K6 was used to measure mental health problems. The respondents were classified into moderate (5–12 of K6) and serious mental health problems (13+). A total of 42.6% of the respondents had moderate or serious mental health problems. Multivariate analysis showed that women were significantly associated with mental health problems. Other variables associated with mental health problems were: younger male, health complaints, severe economic status, relocations, and lack of a social network. An interaction effect of sex and economic status on severe mental health problems was statistically significant. Our findings suggest that mental health problems were prevalent in survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. For men and women, health complaints, severe economic status, relocations, and lack of social network may be important risk factors of poor mental health. For men, interventions focusing on economic support may be particularly useful in reducing mental health problems after the disaster.
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            Advances in the epidemiology of injuries as a basis for public policy.

             W Haddon (2015)
            Successful injury control measures (stoplights, sprinkler systems, electrical insulation, evacuation) have long been commonplace. However, progress in injury control has been hampered by the failure to recognize that injuries cannot occur without the action of specific agents analogous to those of the infectious diseases and likewise transmitted by vehicles and vectors. These agents are the several forms of injury. Varying and interacting with the characteristics of the host and the environment, they constitute the classic epidemiologic triads that determine injury distributions, none of which are random. The injury-disease dichotomy, a universal in most of the world's major languages, may have resulted from the fact that at least some of the causes of injuries (for example, wild animals or falling trees) are more identifiable and proximate than the causes of diseases. The etiology of injuries suggests that for epidemiologic and public health purposes, the term injury should probably be defined so as to encompass those kinds of damage to the body that are produced by energy exchanges and that are manifested within 48 hours, or usually within considerably shorter periods. Strategies for injury control can be extended to the control of other pathological conditions. The active-passive distinction (the dimension expressing the extent to which control measures require people to do something) has a direct bearing on the success of public health programs, because passive approaches have historically had a far better record of success than active ones. Ten basic strategies have been identified that provide options for reducing the damage to people (and property) caused by all kinds of environmental hazards.
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              Risk Factors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Survivors after the 512 Wenchuan Earthquake in China

              This study investigated the psychological reactions of survivors of the 512 Wenchuan earthquake in China and the risk factors associated with those reactions. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Type D Scale-14 (DS14), a self-developed trauma experience questionniare, and a demographic questionnaire were administered to 956 earthquake survivors (389 males and 567 females) in Mianzhu, one of the cities most affected by the earthquake. The results showed that postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms affected 84.8% of survivors one to two months after the earthquake. Significant risk factors associated with PTSD symptoms included: (1) being female; (2) older age; (3) higher exposure to traumatic events during the earthquake; and (4) negative affect in Type-D personality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                02 July 2019
                July 2019
                : 16
                : 13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia
                [2 ]Department of Sociology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hkabir@ 123456myune.edu.au ; Tel.: +61-444-531-336
                Article
                ijerph-16-02342
                10.3390/ijerph16132342
                6651472
                31269746
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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