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      Characterization of symptoms and edema distribution in premenstrual syndrome


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          Premenstrual syndrome is a group of symptoms linked to the menstrual cycle, and edema is among these symptoms. Physiotherapy is often sought by many patients for the treatment of edema; however, for an adequate prescription of physiotherapeutic procedures, the distribution of edema throughout the body has yet to be characterized.


          To determine the most frequent symptoms and body regions that present with edema in women during the premenstrual period.

          Subjects and methods

          Sixty women with a mean age of 24.6±4.7 years were evaluated during their premenstrual (between days 21 and 28) and menstrual period (between days 1 and 3), and the collected data included body mass, height, biotype (body-fat distribution), face, breast, limb-circumference measurements, and limb-volume estimate, and an adapted version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test and the test for equality of two proportions ( P≤0.05).


          Premenstrual syndrome was identified in 91.7% of the women, and the most frequent symptoms were irritability (73.33%) and physical symptoms, including swelling (65%), and anxiety (58.3%). Edema was detected in the following areas: facial, epigastric, mammary, umbilical, and pubic, the mid-third of the arms, distal forearm, in both thighs and in the mid-third of the legs determined by circumference measurements, and in both upper and lower limbs, according to the estimated volume.


          In this study population, the most frequent symptoms were irritability, physical symptoms, and anxiety, with distribution of edema in the face, breast, abdomen, pubic area, distal upper limb, and proximal lower limb.

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          Most cited references26

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          Prevalence, impacts and medical managements of premenstrual syndrome among female students: cross-sectional study in college of health sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia

          Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is used to describe physical, cognitive, affective, and behavioral symptoms that occur cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and resolve quickly at or within a few days of the onset of menstruation. The primary aim of the study was to assess the prevalence, impacts and medical managements of PMS on female medical students of Mekelle University College of Health Sciences. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among systematically selected female students of Mekelle University College of Health Sciences, Mekelle town, northern Ethiopia from March to April 2013. A structured and pretested self-administered questionnaire was employed for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL (SPSS version 16). The criteria proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV TR) were used to diagnose PMS. Result From the total population size of 608; a sample size of 258 was drawn. Age of the study participants ranged from 18 to 25 years, with mean age of 20.86 ± 1.913 years. Among the participants, 144(83.2%) have had at least one PM symptoms with their menstrual period. The prevalence of PMS according to DSM-IV was 37.0%. About 49(28.3%) reported frequent class missing, 17(9.8%) exam missing, 14(8.1%) low grade scoring and 3(1.7%) of them reported withdrawal from their learning associated with their PMS. Only 83(48.0%) participants sought medical treatment for their PMS. The treatment modalities used were pain killers, 63(36.4%), hot drinks like coffee and tea, 13(7.5%), and massage therapy and exercise, 7(4.0%). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed average length of one cycle of menstruation (COR = 0.20(0.070-0.569) and academic performance impairment (AOR = 0.345(0.183-0.653) were significantly associated with the diagnosis of PMS and use of PMS treatments respectively. Conclusions Our study revealed a high prevalence and negative impact of PMS on students of Mekelle University. Therefore, health education, appropriate medical treatment and counseling services, as part of the overall health service, should be availed and provided to affected women.
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            Burden of menstrual symptoms in Japanese women – an analysis of medical care-seeking behavior from a survey-based study

            Background Menstrual symptoms are associated with various health problems in women of reproductive age, and this may impact their quality of life. Despite this, Japanese women are likely to hesitate seeking a specialist’s medical help for their menstrual symptoms. Purpose To study subject parameters including symptom severity, gynecological disorders, and treatments in medical care-seeking women (outpatient) and women opting for self-care (nonvisit), to identify reasons why Japanese women do not see a gynecologist, and to document the benefit of gynecologist visits by assessing the impact on women’s daily lives. Methods Two online surveys were conducted among women aged 15–49 years. Sampling was structured to approximate the age and geographic distribution in Japan. Results of the first survey and part of the second survey on the overall current burden of menstrual symptoms are reported in a separate publication. Further outcomes from the second survey reported in this paper included data from the outpatient (n=274) and nonvisit (n=500) groups on symptom severity, gynecological disorders, medical treatment use, reasons for not seeking medical care, and the improvement of daily life. Results The outpatient group tended to have greater symptom severity compared to the nonvisit group. Uterine fibroids, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, and premenstrual syndrome were the most commonly self-reported diagnoses, and oral contraceptives were frequently prescribed at gynecologist visits. Nonvisit group subjects felt that gynecologist consultations were unnecessary or felt resistant to them. Daily life was significantly improved after medical treatment from a gynecologist visit with associated economic savings, whilst the nonvisit group had no change after taking over-the-counter drugs to relieve their menstrual symptoms. Conclusion The present study results indicate that Japanese women who were suffering from menstrual symptoms could benefit from visiting a gynecologist for easing their symptoms, hence improving their daily life.
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              Cellulite: nature and aetiopathogenesis.

              Only a limited number of studies on cellulite have been published in the international literature and many of them reach somewhat antithetical conclusions. Consequently, it is not yet possible to reconcile the extreme differences of opinion which have lingered on for years concerning the nature of this disorder, as well as its origin and even the most basic aspects of its histopathological classification. It does not even have a recognized name: in fact, the term 'cellulitis' is used in scientific English to indicate a spreading gangrenous infection of the subcutaneous cellular tissue. The other terms used from time to time [panniculitis, lipodystrophy, edematofibrosclerotic panniculitis (EFP), liposclerosis, lipoedema, etc.] have quite different morphological and pathogenetic connotations in general. Over the last few decades, three major conflicting theories have emerged in relation to the ethiopathogenesis of cellulite. These indicate, respectively, the following causes: 1. Oedema caused by excessive hydrophilia of the intercellular matrix. 2. A homeostatic alteration on a regional microcirculatory level; this pathogenetic theory is summarized in a synthetic and self-explanatory denomination: EFP. 3. A peculiar anatomical conformation of the subcutaneous tissue of women, different from male morphology. These theories must all now be updated in the light of recent advances on the sophisticated and composite physiopathology of the adipose organ - which acts not only as a control device which regulates the systematic equilibrium of energy and modulates the food intake and the metabolism of other tissue substrate through a multiple glandular secretion of hormones and parahormones.

                Author and article information

                Int J Womens Health
                Int J Womens Health
                International Journal of Women’s Health
                International Journal of Women's Health
                Dove Medical Press
                11 March 2015
                : 7
                : 297-303
                [1 ]Physical Therapy Department, São Camilo University Center, São Paulo, Brazil
                [2 ]Physical Therapy Department, São Paulo City University (UNICID), São Paulo, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Pascale Mutti Tacani, Physical Therapy Department, São Camilo University Center, 1501 Nazaré Avenue, Ipiranga, São Paulo 04263-200, Brazil, Tel +55 11 0300 017 8585, Email pascale.tacani@ 123456hotmail.com
                © 2015 Tacani et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                premenstrual syndrome,menstrual cycle,edema,women’s health,affective symptoms,body surface area


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