5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Drug Bioavailability Enhancing Agents of Natural Origin (Bioenhancers) that Modulate Drug Membrane Permeation and Pre-Systemic Metabolism

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Many new chemical entities are discovered with high therapeutic potential, however, many of these compounds exhibit unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties due to poor solubility and/or poor membrane permeation characteristics. The latter is mainly due to the lipid-like barrier imposed by epithelial mucosal layers, which have to be crossed by drug molecules in order to exert a therapeutic effect. Another barrier is the pre-systemic metabolic degradation of drug molecules, mainly by cytochrome P450 enzymes located in the intestinal enterocytes and liver hepatocytes. Although the nasal, buccal and pulmonary routes of administration avoid the first-pass effect, they are still dependent on absorption of drug molecules across the mucosal surfaces to achieve systemic drug delivery. Bioenhancers (drug absorption enhancers of natural origin) have been identified that can increase the quantity of unchanged drug that appears in the systemic blood circulation by means of modulating membrane permeation and/or pre-systemic metabolism. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of natural bioenhancers and their main mechanisms of action for the nasal, buccal, pulmonary and oral routes of drug administration. Poorly bioavailable drugs such as large, hydrophilic therapeutics are often administered by injections. Bioenhancers may potentially be used to benefit patients by making systemic delivery of these poorly bioavailable drugs possible via alternative routes of administration (i.e., oral, nasal, buccal or pulmonary routes of administration) and may also reduce dosages of small molecular drugs and thereby reduce treatment costs.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 203

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Subcellular localization and distribution of the breast cancer resistance protein transporter in normal human tissues.

          High expression of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) gene has been shown to be involved in resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Knowledge of the localization of BCRP protein in normal tissues may help unravel the normal function of this protein. Therefore, we characterized the tissue distribution and cellular localization of BCRP in frozen sections of normal human tissues. For this purpose, we used the recently described monoclonal antibody BXP-34 and another independently developed monoclonal antibody directed against BCRP, BXP-21. Both monoclonal antibodies show specific BCRP plasma membrane staining on cytospins obtained from topotecan- or mitoxantrone-selected cell lines, as well as from BCRP-transfected cell lines. Immunoprecipitation experiments using either BXP-21 or BXP-34 yielded a clear M(r) 72,000 BCRP band from BCRP-overexpressing tumor cells. In the topotecan-selected T8 and mitoxantrone-selected MX3 tumor cell lines, BCRP turned out to be differentially glycosylated. In contrast to BXP-34, BXP-21 is able to detect the M(r) 72,000 BCRP protein on immunoblots and is reactive with BCRP in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Using BXP-21 and BXP-34, prominent staining of BCRP was observed in placental syncytiotrophoblasts, in the epithelium of the small intestine and colon, in the liver canalicular membrane, and in ducts and lobules of the breast. Furthermore, BCRP was present in veinous and capillary endothelium, but not in arterial endothelium in all of the tissues investigated. In the tissues studied, the mRNA levels of BCRP were assessed using reverse transcription-PCR, and these corresponded with the levels of BCRP protein estimated from immunohistochemical staining. The presence of BCRP at the placental syncytiotrophoblasts is consistent with the hypothesis of a protective role of BCRP for the fetus. The apical localization in the epithelium of the small intestine and colon indicates a possible role of BCRP in the regulation of the uptake of p.o. administered BCRP substrates by back-transport of substrate drugs entering from the gut lumen. Therefore, it may be useful to attempt to modulate the uptake of p.o. delivered BCRP substrates, e.g., topotecan or irinotecan, by using a BCRP inhibitor. Clinical trials testing this hypothesis have been initiated in our institute.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Chitosan and its use as a pharmaceutical excipient.

             L Illum (1998)
            Chitosan has been investigated as an excipient in the pharmaceutical industry, to be used in direct tablet compression, as a tablet disintegrant, for the production of controlled release solid dosage forms or for the improvement of drug dissolution. Chitosan has, compared to traditional excipients, been shown to have superior characteristics and especially flexibility in its use. Furthermore, chitosan has been used for production of controlled release implant systems for delivery of hormones over extended periods of time. Lately, the transmucosal absorption promoting characteristics of chitosan has been exploited especially for nasal and oral delivery of polar drugs to include peptides and proteins and for vaccine delivery. These properties, together with the very safe toxicity profile, makes chitosan an exciting and promising excipient for the pharmaceutical industry for present and future applications.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Cannabis sativa: A comprehensive ethnopharmacological review of a medicinal plant with a long history

              Cannabis sativa L. (C. sativa) is an annual dioecious plant, which shares its origins with the inception of the first agricultural human societies in Asia. Over the course of time different parts of the plant have been utilized for therapeutic and recreational purposes, for instance, extraction of healing oils from seed, or the use of inflorescences for their psychoactive effects. The key psychoactive constituent in C. sativa is called Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC). The endocannabinoid system seems to be phylogenetically ancient, as it was present in the most primitive vertebrates with a neuronal network. N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are the main endocannabinoids ligands present in the animal kingdom, and the main endocannabinoid receptors are cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor and cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptor.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pharmaceutics
                Pharmaceutics
                pharmaceutics
                Pharmaceutics
                MDPI
                1999-4923
                16 January 2019
                January 2019
                : 11
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences (Pharmacen™), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; bianca.peterson@ 123456nwu.ac.za (B.P.); weyers.morne@ 123456gmail.com (M.W.); jan.steenekamp@ 123456nwu.ac.za (J.H.S.); dewald.steyn@ 123456nwu.ac.za (J.D.S.); chrisna.gouws@ 123456nwu.ac.za (C.G.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: sias.hamman@ 123456nwu.ac.za ; Tel.: +27-18-299-4035
                Article
                pharmaceutics-11-00033
                10.3390/pharmaceutics11010033
                6359194
                30654429
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article