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      A Randomized Comparison of Coronary-Stent Placement and Balloon Angioplasty in the Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease

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          Abstract

          Coronary-stent placement is a new technique in which a balloon-expandable, stainless-steel, slotted tube is implanted at the site of a coronary stenosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of stent placement and standard balloon angioplasty on angiographically detected restenosis and clinical outcomes. We randomly assigned 410 patients with symptomatic coronary disease to elective placement of a Palmaz-Schatz stent or to standard balloon angioplasty. Coronary angiography was performed at base line, immediately after the procedure, and six months later. The patients who underwent stenting had a higher rate of procedural success than those who underwent standard balloon angioplasty (96.1 percent vs. 89.6 percent, P = 0.011), a larger immediate increase in the diameter of the lumen (1.72 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.23 +/- 0.48 mm, P < 0.001), and a larger luminal diameter immediately after the procedure (2.49 +/- 0.43 vs. 1.99 +/- 0.47 mm, P < 0.001). At six months, the patients with stented lesions continued to have a larger luminal diameter (1.74 +/- 0.60 vs. 1.56 +/- 0.65 mm, P = 0.007) and a lower rate of restenosis (31.6 percent vs. 42.1 percent, P = 0.046) than those treated with balloon angioplasty. There were no coronary events (death; myocardial infarction; coronary-artery bypass surgery; vessel closure, including stent thrombosis; or repeated angioplasty) in 80.5 percent of the patients in the stent group and 76.2 percent of those in the angioplasty group (P = 0.16). Revascularization of the original target lesion because of recurrent myocardial ischemia was performed less frequently in the stent group than in the angioplasty group (10.2 percent vs. 15.4 percent, P = 0.06). In selected patients, placement of an intracoronary stent, as compared with balloon angioplasty, results in an improved rate of procedural success, a lower rate of angiographically detected restenosis, a similar rate of clinical events after six months, and a less frequent need for revascularization of the original coronary lesion.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA): A report from the PTCA registry of the national heart, lung, and blood institute

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            Aspirin and dipyridamole in the prevention of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

            To examine the role of antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of arterial restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 376 patients. The active treatment consisted of an oral aspirin-dipyridamole combination (330 mg-75 mg) given three times daily, beginning 24 hours before PTCA. Eight hours before PTCA, the oral dipyridamole was replaced with intravenous dipyridamole at a dosage of 10 mg per hour for 24 hours, and oral aspirin was continued. Sixteen hours after PTCA, the initial combination was reinstituted. Treatment was continued in patients with a successfully dilated vessel until follow-up angiography four to seven months after PTCA--or earlier, if symptoms dictated. Of 249 patients who underwent follow-up angiography, 37.7 percent of patients receiving the active drug had restenosis in at least one segment, as compared with 38.6 percent of patients taking placebo (P not significant). The number of stenotic segments was virtually the same in the two groups. Among the 376 randomized patients, there were 16 periprocedural Q-wave myocardial infarctions--13 in the placebo group and 3 in the active-drug group (6.9 percent vs. 1.6 percent, P = 0.0113). Although the use of this antiplatelet regimen before and after PTCA did not reduce the six-month rate of restenosis after successful coronary angioplasty, it markedly reduced the incidence of transmural myocardial infarction during or soon after PTCA. Thus, the short-term use of antiplatelet agents in relation to PTCA can be recommended.
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              A comparison of directional atherectomy with coronary angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease. The CAVEAT Study Group.

              Directional coronary atherectomy is a new technique of coronary revascularization by which atherosclerotic plaque is excised and retrieved from target lesions. With respect to the rate of restenosis and clinical outcomes, it is not known how this procedure compares with balloon angioplasty, which relies on dilation of the plaque and vessel wall. We compared the rate of restenosis after angioplasty with that after atherectomy. At 35 sites in the United States and Europe, 1012 patients were randomly assigned to either atherectomy (512 patients) or angioplasty (500 patients). The patients underwent coronary angiography at base line and again after six months; the paired angiograms were quantitatively assessed at one laboratory by investigators unaware of the treatment assignments. Stenosis was reduced to 50 percent or less more often with atherectomy than with angioplasty (89 percent vs. 80 percent; P < 0.001), and there was a greater immediate increase in vessel caliber (1.05 vs. 0.86 mm, P < 0.001). This was accompanied by a higher rate of early complications (11 percent vs. 5 percent, P < 0.001) and higher in-hospital costs ($11,904 vs $10,637; P = 0.006). At six months, the rate of restenosis was 50 percent for atherectomy and 57 percent for angioplasty (P = 0.06). However, the probability of death or myocardial infarction within six months was higher in the atherectomy group (8.6 percent vs. 4.6 percent, P = 0.007). Removing coronary artery plaque with atherectomy led to a larger luminal diameter and a small reduction in angiographic restenosis, the latter being confined largely to the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. However, atherectomy led to a higher rate of early complications, increased cost, and no apparent clinical benefit after six months of follow-up.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                August 25 1994
                August 25 1994
                : 331
                : 8
                : 496-501
                Article
                10.1056/NEJM199408253310802
                8041414
                © 1994

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