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      Mutations of the VHL tumour suppressor gene in renal carcinoma.

      Nature genetics

      genetics, von Hippel-Lindau Disease, Sequence Deletion, Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length, Organ Specificity, Neoplasms, Second Primary, Mutation, Molecular Sequence Data, Kidney Neoplasms, Humans, Genes, Tumor Suppressor, DNA, Neoplasm, DNA Mutational Analysis, Carcinoma, Base Sequence, Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell

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          Abstract

          Multiple, bilateral renal carcinomas are a frequent occurrence in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. To elucidate the aetiological role of the VHL gene in human kidney tumorigenesis, localized and advanced tumours from 110 patients with sporadic renal carcinoma were analysed for VHL mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). VHL mutations were identified in 57% of clear cell renal carcinomas analysed and LOH was observed in 98% of those samples. Moreover, VHL was mutated and lost in a renal tumour from a patient with familial renal carcinoma carrying the constitutional translocation, t(3;8)(p14;q24). The identification of VHL mutations in a majority of localized and advanced sporadic renal carcinomas and in a second form of hereditary renal carcinoma indicates that the VHL gene plays a critical part in the origin of this malignancy.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Identification of the von Hippel-Lindau disease tumor suppressor gene

           F Latif,  K Tory,  J R Gnarra (1993)
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            Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are associated with MEN 2A and FMTC.

            Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) are dominantly inherited conditions which predispose to the development of endocrine neoplasia. Evidence is presented that sequence changes within the coding region of the RET proto-oncogene, a putative transmembrane tyrosine kinase, may be responsible for the development of neoplasia in these inherited disorders. Single strand conformational variants (SSCVs) in exons 7 and 8 of the RET proto-oncogene were identified in eight MEN 2A and four FMTC families. The variants were observed only in the DNA of individuals who were either affected or who had inherited the MEN2A or FMTC allele as determined by haplotyping experiments. The seven variants identified were sequenced directly. All involved point mutations within codons specifying cysteine residues, resulting in nonconservative amino acid changes. Six of the seven mutations are located in exon 7. A single mutation was found in exon 8. Variants were not detected in four MEN 2B families studied for all exon assays available, nor were they detectable in 16 cases of well documented sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma or pheochromocytoma that were tested for exon 7 variants. Coinheritance of the mutations with disease and the physical and genetic proximity of the RET proto-oncogene provide evidence that RET is responsible for at least two of the three inherited forms of MEN 2. Neither the normal function, nor the ligand of RET are yet known. However, its apparent involvement in the development of these inherited forms of neoplasia as well as in papillary thyroid carcinoma suggest an important developmental or cell regulatory role for the protein.
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              A mutation in the RET proto-oncogene associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

              Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) comprises three clinically distinct, dominantly inherited cancer syndromes. MEN 2A patients develop medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and phaeochromocytoma. MEN 2B patients show in addition ganglioneuromas of the gastrointestinal tract and skeletal abnormalities. In familial MTC, only the thyroid is affected. Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene have recently been reported in association with MEN 2A and familial MTC. All mutations occurred within codons specifying cysteine residues in the transition point between the RET protein extracellular and transmembrane domains. We now show that MEN 2B is also associated with mutation of the RET proto-oncogene. A mutation in codon 664, causing the substitution of a threonine for a methionine in the tyrosine kinase domain of the protein, was found in all nine unrelated MEN 2B patients studied. The same mutation was found in six out of 18 sporadic tumours.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/ng0594-85
                7915601

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