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      Ethylene reduces glucose sensitivity and reverses photosynthetic repression through optimization of glutathione production in salt-stressed wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

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          Abstract

          Ethylene plays a crucial role throughout the life cycle of plants under optimal and stressful environments. The present study reports the involvement of exogenously sourced ethylene (as ethephon; 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) in the protection of the photosynthetic activity from glucose (Glu) sensitivity through its influence on the antioxidant system for adaptation of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) plants under salt stress. Ten-day-old plants were subjected to control and 100 mM NaCl and treated with 200 µl L −1 ethephon on foliage at 20 days after seed sowing individually or in combination with 6% Glu. Plants receiving ethylene exhibited higher growth and photosynthesis through reduced Glu sensitivity in the presence of salt stress. Moreover, ethylene-induced reduced glutathione (GSH) production resulted in increased psbA and psbB expression to protect PSII activity and photosynthesis under salt stress. The use of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, substantiated the involvement of ethylene-induced GSH in the reversal of Glu-mediated photosynthetic repression in salt-stressed plants. It was suggested that ethylene increased the utilization of Glu under salt stress through its influence on photosynthetic potential and sink strength and reduced the Glu-mediated repression of photosynthesis.

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          Ror2 signaling regulates Golgi structure and transport through IFT20 for tumor invasiveness

          Signaling through the Ror2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes invadopodia formation for tumor invasion. Here, we identify intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20) as a new target of this signaling in tumors that lack primary cilia, and find that IFT20 mediates the ability of Ror2 signaling to induce the invasiveness of these tumors. We also find that IFT20 regulates the nucleation of Golgi-derived microtubules by affecting the GM130-AKAP450 complex, which promotes Golgi ribbon formation in achieving polarized secretion for cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, IFT20 promotes the efficiency of transport through the Golgi complex. These findings shed new insights into how Ror2 signaling promotes tumor invasiveness, and also advance the understanding of how Golgi structure and transport can be regulated.
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            Sucrose metabolism: regulatory mechanisms and pivotal roles in sugar sensing and plant development.

             Karen Koch (2004)
            Sucrose cleavage is vital to multicellular plants, not only for the allocation of crucial carbon resources but also for the initiation of hexose-based sugar signals in importing structures. Only the invertase and reversible sucrose synthase reactions catalyze known paths of sucrose breakdown in vivo. The regulation of these reactions and its consequences has therefore become a central issue in plant carbon metabolism. Primary mechanisms for this regulation involve the capacity of invertases to alter sugar signals by producing glucose rather than UDPglucose, and thus also two-fold more hexoses than are produced by sucrose synthase. In addition, vacuolar sites of cleavage by invertases could allow temporal control via compartmentalization. In addition, members of the gene families encoding either invertases or sucrose synthases respond at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels to diverse environmental signals, including endogenous changes that reflect their own action (e.g. hexoses and hexose-responsive hormone systems such as abscisic acid [ABA] signaling). At the enzyme level, sucrose synthases can be regulated by rapid changes in sub-cellular localization, phosphorylation, and carefully modulated protein turnover. In addition to transcriptional control, invertase action can also be regulated at the enzyme level by highly localized inhibitor proteins and by a system that has the potential to initiate and terminate invertase activity in vacuoles. The extent, path, and site of sucrose metabolism are thus highly responsive to both internal and external environmental signals and can, in turn, dramatically alter development and stress acclimation.
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              Soil salinity: A serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation

              Salinity is one of the most brutal environmental factors limiting the productivity of crop plants because most of the crop plants are sensitive to salinity caused by high concentrations of salts in the soil, and the area of land affected by it is increasing day by day. For all important crops, average yields are only a fraction – somewhere between 20% and 50% of record yields; these losses are mostly due to drought and high soil salinity, environmental conditions which will worsen in many regions because of global climate change. A wide range of adaptations and mitigation strategies are required to cope with such impacts. Efficient resource management and crop/livestock improvement for evolving better breeds can help to overcome salinity stress. However, such strategies being long drawn and cost intensive, there is a need to develop simple and low cost biological methods for salinity stress management, which can be used on short term basis. Microorganisms could play a significant role in this respect, if we exploit their unique properties such as tolerance to saline conditions, genetic diversity, synthesis of compatible solutes, production of plant growth promoting hormones, bio-control potential, and their interaction with crop plants.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                naf9.amu@gmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                16 June 2021
                16 June 2021
                2021
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411340.3, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0765, Department of Botany, , Aligarh Muslim University, ; Aligarh, 202002 India
                [2 ]GRID grid.411816.b, ISNI 0000 0004 0498 8167, Department of Botany, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, , Jamia Hamdard, ; New Delhi, 110062 India
                [3 ]GRID grid.56302.32, ISNI 0000 0004 1773 5396, Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, , King Saud University, ; Riyadh, 11451 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                Article
                92086
                10.1038/s41598-021-92086-2
                8209215
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                plant sciences, photosynthesis, plant hormones

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