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      Arctic climate warming and sea ice declines lead to increased storm surge activity : WARMING LEADS TO ARCTIC STORM SURGES

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          Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling.

          The temperature history of the first millennium C.E. is sparsely documented, especially in the Arctic. We present a synthesis of decadally resolved proxy temperature records from poleward of 60 degrees N covering the past 2000 years, which indicates that a pervasive cooling in progress 2000 years ago continued through the Middle Ages and into the Little Ice Age. A 2000-year transient climate simulation with the Community Climate System Model shows the same temperature sensitivity to changes in insolation as does our proxy reconstruction, supporting the inference that this long-term trend was caused by the steady orbitally driven reduction in summer insolation. The cooling trend was reversed during the 20th century, with four of the five warmest decades of our 2000-year-long reconstruction occurring between 1950 and 2000.
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            Reconstructed changes in Arctic sea ice over the past 1,450 years.

            Arctic sea ice extent is now more than two million square kilometres less than it was in the late twentieth century, with important consequences for the climate, the ocean and traditional lifestyles in the Arctic. Although observations show a more or less continuous decline for the past four or five decades, there are few long-term records with which to assess natural sea ice variability. Until now, the question of whether or not current trends are potentially anomalous has therefore remained unanswerable. Here we use a network of high-resolution terrestrial proxies from the circum-Arctic region to reconstruct past extents of summer sea ice, and show that-although extensive uncertainties remain, especially before the sixteenth century-both the duration and magnitude of the current decline in sea ice seem to be unprecedented for the past 1,450 years. Enhanced advection of warm Atlantic water to the Arctic seems to be the main factor driving the decline of sea ice extent on multidecadal timescales, and may result from nonlinear feedbacks between sea ice and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. These results reinforce the assertion that sea ice is an active component of Arctic climate variability and that the recent decrease in summer Arctic sea ice is consistent with anthropogenically forced warming. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved
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              The environment and permafrost of the Mackenzie Delta area

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Geophysical Research Letters
                Geophys. Res. Lett.
                Wiley-Blackwell
                00948276
                April 16 2013
                April 16 2013
                : 40
                : 7
                : 1386-1390
                Article
                10.1002/grl.50191
                1a263d7d-9ebb-464b-880a-972234cd5c83
                © 2013

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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