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      Increased Levels of Antinutritional and/or Defense Proteins Reduced the Protein Quality of a Disease-Resistant Soybean Cultivar

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          The biochemical and nutritional attributes of two soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars, one susceptible (Seridó) and the other resistant (Seridó-RCH) to stem canker, were examined to assess whether the resistance to pathogens was related to levels of antinutritional and/or defense proteins in the plant and subsequently affected the nutritional quality. Lectin, urease, trypsin inhibitor, peroxidase and chitinase activities were higher in the resistant cultivar. Growing rats were fed with isocaloric and isoproteic diets prepared with defatted raw soybean meals. Those on the Seridó-RCH diet showed the worst performance in terms of protein quality indicators. Based on regression analysis, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, peroxidase and chitinase appear to be involved in the resistance trait but also in the poorer nutritional quality of Seridó-RCH. Thus, the development of cultivars for disease resistance may lead to higher concentrations of antinutritional compounds, affecting the quality of soybean seeds. Further research that includes the assessment of more cultivars/genotypes is needed.

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          Most cited references 58

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          Multivariate satatistical methods

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            Plant interactions with multiple insect herbivores: from community to genes.

            Every plant is a member of a complex insect community that consists of tens to hundreds of species that belong to different trophic levels. The dynamics of this community are critically influenced by the plant, which mediates interactions between community members that can occur on the plant simultaneously or at different times. Herbivory results in changes in the plant's morphological or chemical phenotype that affect interactions with subsequently arriving herbivores. Changes in the plant's phenotype are mediated by molecular processes such as phytohormonal signaling networks and transcriptomic rearrangements that are initiated by oral secretions of the herbivore. Processes at different levels of biological complexity occur at timescales ranging from minutes to years. In this review, we address plant-mediated interactions with multiple species of the associated insect community and their effects on community dynamics, and link these to the mechanistic effects that multiple attacks have on plant phenotypes.
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              Implications of antinutritional components in soybean foods.

               I E Liener (1993)
              There are a number of components present in soybeans that exert a negative impact on the nutritional quality of the protein. Among those factors that are destroyed by heat treatment are the protease inhibitors and lectins. Protease inhibitors exert their antinutritional effect by causing pancreatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia, which ultimately results in an inhibition of growth. The lectin, by virtue of its ability to bind to glycoprotein receptors on the epithelial cells lining the intestinal mucosa, inhibits growth by interfering with the absorption of nutrients. Of lesser significance are the antinutritional effects produced by relatively heat stable factors, such as goitrogens, tannins, phytoestrogens, flatus-producing oligosaccharides, phytate, and saponins. Other diverse but ill-defined factors appear to increase the requirements for vitamins A, B12, D, and E. The processing of soybeans under severe alkaline conditions leads to the formation of lysinoalanine, which has been shown to damage the kidneys of rats. This is not generally true, however, for edible soy protein that has been produced under milder alkaline conditions. Also meriting consideration is the allergenic response that may sometimes occur in humans, as well as calves and piglets, on dietary exposure to soybeans.

                Author and article information

                22 July 2015
                July 2015
                : 7
                : 7
                : 6038-6054
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Ceará, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza 604440-900, CE, Brazil; E-Mails: danisilas@ (D.O.B.S.); jtaolive@ (J.T.A.O.); daviffarias@ (D.F.F.); henriquebio@ (H.P.O.)
                [2 ]Department of Biology, Federal University of Ceará, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza 60440-900, CE, Brazil
                [3 ]Department of Finance, Federal University of Ceará, Campus Benfica, 60440-970, Fortaleza 60020-180, CE, Brazil; E-Mail: lume1250@
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ]Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mails: aurano@ (A.F.U.C.); imvasco@ (I.M.V.); Tel.: +55-85-3366-9830 (A.F.U.C.); +55-85-3366-9822 (I.M.V.); Fax: +55-85-3366-9830 (A.F.U.C.); +55-85-3366-9139 (I.M.V.).
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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