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      Body Mass Index and Associated Factors of School Absenteeism by School Feeding Program at Selected Primary Schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Comparative Study

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          Quality of education plays a crucial role in the social, economic, and political development of a nation. Primary school is a vital stage in developing the personality and consciousness of school children.


          The study assessed the Body Mass Index and factors associated with School Absenteeism at selected primary schools in Addis Ababa, 2018.


          A comparative cross-sectional study was undertaken on 324 (162 each group) from selected primary schools of Addis Ababa from May 02 to July 30, 2018. All participants and their families provided written informed consent and assent. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select participants, where the list of students was once identified from the selected schools. An independent t-test was undertaken at p value <0.05 as the statistically significant level. And, binary logistics regression was used for the identification of factors statistically associated with school absenteeism, with its respective 95% confidence interval (CI) and p value of <0.05 significant level. Findings. There was a statistically significant difference between feeding and nonfeeding participants on average weight, school absenteeism, and BMI for age, at p < 0.05. Participants who enrolled in the school feeding program had a higher average weight than nonfeeding participants ( p < 0.05). Participants from the feeding group had lower average school absenteeism than their counter participants ( p < 0.05). The average BMI for age was significantly higher among feeding participants than nonfeeding participants ( p < 0.05). The odds of having school absenteeism were 1.796 times higher among feeding participants than among nonfeeding participants (AOR: 1.796; 95CI:1.061–3.042, p < 0.05). The odds of sustaining absenteeism from the school were 2.257 times higher among feeding participants than among nonfeeding participants (AOR: 2.257; 95%CI: 1.291–3.948; p < 0.05).


          A higher number of school absenteeism, average weight, and BMI for age were observed in participants enrolled in the school feeding program than those who did not get enrolled in the feeding program. Large-scale studies were recommended to testify the impacts of school feeding on absenteeism.

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          School feeding programs in developing countries: impacts on children's health and educational outcomes.

          School feeding programs (SFPs) are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and transfer income to families. The present review explores the impact of SFPs on nutritional, health, and educational outcomes of school-aged children in developing countries. Peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews published in the past 20 years were identified and screened for inclusion. Analysis of the articles revealed relatively consistent positive effects of school feeding in its different modalities on energy intake, micronutrient status, school enrollment, and attendance of the children participating in SFPs compared to non-participants. However, the positive impact of school feeding on growth, cognition, and academic achievement of school-aged children receiving SFPs compared to non-school-fed children was less conclusive. This review identifies research gaps and challenges that need to be addressed in the design and implementation of SFPs and calls for theory-based impact evaluations to strengthen the scientific evidence behind designing, funding, and implementing SFPs. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.
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            Prevalence of and Risk factors for Stunting among School Children and Adolescents in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria

            Stunting adversely affects the physical and mental outcome of children. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with stunting among urban school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Five hundred and seventy children aged 5-19 years were selected using the multi-stage random-sampling technique. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-score (HAZ) of <-2 standard deviation (SD) of the National Center for Health Statistics reference. Severe stunting was defined as HAZ of <-3 SD. The mean age of the children was 12.2+3.41 years, and 296 (51.5%) were males. Ninety-nine (17.4%) children were stunted. Of the stunted children, 20 (22.2%) were severely stunted. Identified risk factors associated with stunting were attendance of public schools (p<0.001), polygamous family setting (p=0.001), low maternal education (p=0.001), and low social class (p=0.034). Following multivariate analysis with logistic regression, low maternal education (odds ratio=2.4; 95% confidence interval 1.20-4.9; p=0.015) was the major contributory factor to stunting. Encouraging female education may improve healthcare-seeking behaviour and the use of health services and ultimately reduce stunting and its consequences.
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              Challenging the Professions


                Author and article information

                Scientifica (Cairo)
                Scientifica (Cairo)
                23 March 2021
                : 2021
                1Department of Emergency, Menelik II Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                2Department of Public Health, Unity University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Abdel Halim Salem

                Copyright © 2021 Solomon Muluken Ayehu and Addisu Tadesse Sahile.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article


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