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      Meningoencephalitis due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri in ruminants in Algeria Translated title: Méningo-encéphalite due à l’amibe flagellée Naegleria fowleri chez des ruminants en Algérie

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          Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. The cerebrospinal fluid, after staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, showed the presence of amoebae cells. Histological sections revealed numerous amoebae in all parts of the brain. The presence of N. fowleri was confirmed using a species-specific real-time PCR in histological tissue sections. The two PAM cases were reported during the hot season, and the source of infection is very likely the water where the cattle came to drink. Particular attention should be focused on this type of infection in aquatic environments when the temperature is high and preventive measures must be taken to avoid the proliferation of N. fowleri.

          Translated abstract

          La méningo-encéphalite amibienne primitive (MAP) est une infection mortelle dans la plupart des cas, causée par l’amibe flagellée Naegleria fowleri. Ce rapport décrit les premiers cas de MAP en Algérie, chez une vache et une brebis à Batna, au nord-est du pays. La mort des deux ruminants s’est produite une semaine après les premières manifestations cliniques. L’examen du liquide céphalorachidien après coloration au May-Grünwald-Giemsa a montré la présence de cellules amibiennes. Des coupes histologiques ont révélé la présence de nombreuses amibes dans toutes les parties du cerveau. La présence de N. fowleri a été confirmée par PCR spécifique en temps réel à partir des coupes histologiques. Les deux cas de MAP ont été signalés au cours de la saison chaude, et la source d’infection est vraisemblablement l’eau où le bétail venait boire. Une attention particulière devrait être accordée à ce type d’infection dans les milieux aquatiques lorsque la température est élevée et des mesures préventives doivent être prises pour éviter la prolifération de N. fowleri.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Real-time PCR analysis of DNA and RNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded biopsies.

          The archives of departments of pathology represent a unique source of morphologically defined biopsies derived from normal and pathologically altered tissues for which extensive clinical data are available. The exact quantification of nucleic acids in these biopsies offers a promising extension of current methodology to study the pathogenesis of many different diseases. The development of real-time PCR technology has greatly facilitated the realization of nucleic acid quantification. Now it is feasible to analyze large series of samples for the exact quantification of nucleic acids even if the number of target molecules is small and the amount of material available for analysis is limiting. This review focuses on our own experiences concerning the extraction of nucleic acids from fixed and embedded biopsies using both conventional approaches and laser-assisted microdissection and the subsequent application of real-time PCR methods for quantification of mRNA transcripts, gene copy number, and the methylation status. We provide a number of protocols to assist in the application of these techniques. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            Effect of thermal additions on the density and distribution of thermophilic amoebae and pathogenic Naegleria fowleri in a newly created cooling lake.

            Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of fatal human amoebic meningoencephalitis. The protozoan is ubiquitous in nature, and its presence is enhanced by thermal additions. In this investigation, water and sediments from a newly created cooling lake were quantitatively analyzed for the presence of thermophilic amoebae, thermophilic Naegleria spp., and the pathogen Naegleria fowleri. During periods of thermal additions, the concentrations of thermophilic amoebae and thermophilic Naegleria spp. increased as much as 5 orders of magnitude, and the concentration of the pathogen N. fowleri increased as much as 2 orders of magnitude. Concentrations of amoebae returned to prior thermal perturbation levels within 30 to 60 days after cessation of thermal additions. Increases in the thermophilic amoeba concentrations were noted in Savannah River oxbows downriver from the Savannah River plant discharge streams as compared with oxbows upriver from the discharges. Concentrations of thermophilic amoebae and thermophilic Naegleria spp. correlated significantly with temperature and conductivity. Air samples taken proximal to the lake during periods of thermal addition showed no evidence of thermophilic Naegleria spp. Isoenzyme patterns of the N. fowleri isolated from the cooling lake were identical to patterns of N. fowleri isolated from other sites in the United States and Belgium.
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              Meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in cattle of northeast Brazil.

              Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is an acute disease of the central nervous system of humans and animals caused by Naegleria fowleri. This report describes a case of meningoencephalitis caused by N. fowleri in a crossbred, one-year-old bovine with progressive neurological signs. At necropsy there was thickening of the meninges and multifocal areas of malacia in the thalamus, caudal and rostral colliculi, parietal and occipital cortex, and cerebellum. Histologically there was multifocal necrosupurative meningoencephalitis associated with areas of malacia containing amoebic trophozoites. Immunohistochemistry of the brain was positive for N. fowleri. The disease should be included among the differential diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system in cattle in areas where animals are exposed to hot, stagnant water.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                15 March 2016
                : 23
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2016/01 )
                [1 ] Veterinary Clinic “Le refuge” 05000 Batna Algeria
                [2 ] Laboratory ESPA, University of Batna 1 05000 Batna Algeria
                [3 ] Université de Lyon, UMR 5240, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1 69622 Villeurbanne France
                Author notes
                parasite160006 10.1051/parasite/2016011
                © M. Benterki et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 17, Pages: 4
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