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      Gelatin-Based Films and Coatings for Food Packaging Applications

      , , ,
      Coatings
      MDPI AG

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          Essential oils as additives in biodegradable films and coatings for active food packaging

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            Antioxidant activity of essential oils.

            Essential oils (EOs) are liquid mixtures of volatile compounds obtained from aromatic plants. Many EOs have antioxidant properties, and the use of EOs as natural antioxidants is a field of growing interest because some synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT are now suspected to be potentially harmful to human health. Addition of EOs to edible products, either by direct mixing or in active packaging and edible coatings, may therefore represent a valid alternative to prevent autoxidation and prolong shelf life. The evaluation of the antioxidant performance of EOs is, however, a crucial issue, because many commonly used "tests" are inappropriate and give contradictory results that may mislead future research. The chemistry explaining EO antioxidant activity is discussed along with an analysis of the potential in food protection. Literature methods to assess EOs' antioxidant performance are critically reviewed.
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              Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.

              Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                COATED
                Coatings
                Coatings
                MDPI AG
                2079-6412
                December 2016
                September 28 2016
                : 6
                : 4
                : 41
                Article
                10.3390/coatings6040041
                1a444038-faf6-4f5c-815f-6389362d0620
                © 2016

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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