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      Índices larvales de Aedes aegypti antes y después de intervenciones de control en Limón, Costa Rica Translated title: Larval indexes of Aedes aegypti before and after control intervention in Limón, Costa Rica

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          Abstract

          INTRODUCCIÓN: Costa Rica ha sufrido un incremento paulatino en la incidencia del dengue, con la presencia de algunos casos hemorrágicos. OBJETIVO: analizar el comportamiento de los índices entomológicos antes y después de intervenciones de control sobre el vector, así como identificar los sitios de cría de Aedes aegypti. MÉTODOS: se utilizó como fuente de información la base de datos de los trabajadores de vectores del Cantón de Limón en 15 localidades visitadas, antes y después de intervenciones sobre el vector durante septiembre-diciembre de 2007. Las intervenciones realizadas fueron: recogida de basura no convencional, destrucción de criaderos, uso de abate como larvicida y tratamiento térmico adulticida intradomiciliario y extradomiciliario. RESULTADOS: la primera encuesta mostró valores de índice casa por encima de 5 en 12 localidades, mientras que, 5 mostraron un aumento de sus valores después de las intervenciones durante la segunda encuesta. Se encontraron valores por encima de 30 % pertenecientes a viviendas cerradas y renuentes a la visita. Los porcentajes de positividad en los terrenos baldíos fueron bajos, 3,6 y 2,9 % antes y después de las intervenciones, respectivamente. Se reportaron 901 recipientes con larvas y pupas, los más positivos resultaron: diversos, tarros, estañones, llantas, baldes, cubetas y canoas. CONCLUSIÓN: la evaluación crítica de los resultados mostró un impacto significativo sobre los índices entomológicos después de las medidas de intervención, sin embargo, se recomienda para futuras intervenciones una revisión detallada del trabajo de terreno, para disminuir fallos en su implementación e incorporar nuevas medidas.

          Translated abstract

          INTRODUCTION: Costa Rica has undergone a gradual increase of dengue incidence, including some hemorrhagic dengue cases. OBJECTIVE: to analyze the bahaviour of the entomological indexes before and after the control interventions on the vector as well as to identify the breeding sites of Aedes aegypti. METHODS: the source of information was the database from the vector control campaign workers in el Cantón de Limón in 15 visited locations, before and after the interventions from September through December 2007. The interventions comprised non-conventional garbage collection, destruction of breeding sites, use of abate as larvicide and heat treatment for adult vectors inside and outside the house. RESULTS: the first survey showed house-index values over 5 in 12 localities, whereas 5 exhibited increased values after the interventions during the second survey. Values exceeding 30% were found due to non-visited closed houses and to families that rejected to be visited. Positivity percentages in swampy places were low, 3,6 and 2,9% before and after the interventions, respectively. Nine hundred one reservoirs with larvae and pupas, being the most positive cans, jars, tyres, buckets and canoes. CONCLUSIONS: the critical assessment of the results showed a significant impact on the entomological indexes after the interventions; however, for future interventions, it was recommended to make a detailed review of the in situ work so as to reduce problems in the implementation and introduction of new measures.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Defining Challenges and Proposing Solutions for Control of the Virus Vector Aedes aegypti

          If done properly, say the authors,Aedes aegypti suppression is a practical method to control urban dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses.
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            A Review of entomological sampling methods and indicators for dengue vectors

             D Focks,  D. FOCKS,  DA Focks (2003)
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              Use of the pupal survey technique for measuring Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) productivity in Puerto Rico.

              The hypothesis tested was that most pupae of Aedes aegypti are produced in a few types of containers so that vector control efforts could concentrate on eliminating the most productive ones and thus prevent dengue outbreaks. Pupal surveys were conducted twice in 2004 in an urban area in southern Puerto Rico. A total 35,030 immature mosquitoes (III and IV instars, pupae) was counted in 1,367 containers found with water in 624 premises during the first survey. Only pupae were counted in the second survey in 829 premises, 257 of which had containers with water, and 124 contained Ae. aegypti pupae (15%, 22% in the first survey). We found fewer (583) containers with water than in the first survey, but 202 had pupae (35%; 18.5% in first survey). Containers yielded 3,189 Ae. aegypti pupae, which was slightly fewer than those found in the first survey (3,388 pupae). The hypothesis was supported by the data, showing that 7 of 18 types of containers contained 80% of all female pupae. The most productive containers generally were also common. We used several criteria (i.e., container use, two-step cluster analysis based on environmental variables of containers and premises) to classify the containers and premises and to evaluate pupal distribution at various spatial scales (container, premise, and residences versus public areas). Most pupae were in 4 of 10 types of container usage categories. The cluster technique showed that most pupae were in unattended, rain-filled containers in the yards, particularly in receptacles in the shade of trees that received rainfall through foliage and had lower water temperatures. Pupal counts were adjusted to a negative binomial distribution, confirming their highly aggregated dispersal pattern. Cluster analysis showed that 61.3% of female pupae were in 40 (6.4%) of 624 premises that had in common their larger yards, number of trees, and container water volume. Using number of Ae. aegypti larvae, Breteau Index, or the presence of immature forms as indicators of pupal productivity is not as efficient in identifying the most productive types of containers as direct pupal counts.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                mtr
                Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical
                Rev Cubana Med Trop
                Centro Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas (Ciudad de la Habana )
                1561-3054
                August 2009
                : 61
                : 2
                : 0
                S0375-07602009000200008

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Cuba
                Categories
                TROPICAL MEDICINE

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