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      The Prevalence of Median Rhomboid Glossitis in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

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          Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common disorders of endocrine glands which has a worldwide distribution and is a risk factor for oral pathology so; the purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between median rhomboid glossitis (MRG) and DM.


          We examined 202 Iranian patients with DM aged 10-86 years and 261 healthy subjects aged 10-28 years and the diagnosis of MRG was made based on clinical features.


          The examination indicated that 13 (6.43%) diabetic patients and 4 (1.53%) of control group had MRG.There was a significant difference in the prevalence of MRG, between patients and control group. MRG showed no association with other variables (age, sex, duration of DM, drugs, FBS, A1C).


          In the present study the prevalence of MRG in diabetics was much higher than that of controls

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          Most cited references 17

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          The relationship between oral health and diabetes mellitus.

          The term "diabetes mellitus" describes a group of disorders characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood and abnormalities of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. A number of oral diseases and disorders have been associated with diabetes mellitus, and periodontitis has been identified as a possible risk factor for poor metabolic control in subjects with diabetes. The authors reviewed the literature to identify oral conditions that are affected by diabetes mellitus. They also examined the literature concerning periodontitis as a modifier of glycemic control. Although a number of oral disorders have been associated with diabetes mellitus, the data support the fact that periodontitis is a complication of diabetes. Patients with long-standing, poorly controlled diabetes are at risk of developing oral candidiasis, and the evidence indicates that periodontitis is a risk factor for poor glycemic control and the development of other clinical complications of diabetes. Evidence suggests that periodontal changes are the first clinical manifestation of diabetes. Diabetes is an important health care problem. The evidence suggests that oral health care providers can have a significant, positive effect on the oral and general health of patients with diabetes mellitus.
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            Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and oral soft tissue pathologies: II. Prevalence and characteristics of Candida and Candidal lesions.

            To assess the prevalence of Candida albicans and oral infection with Candida in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). This cross-sectional study compared the prevalence of candidiasis in 405 subjects with IDDM and 268 nondiabetic control subjects. Assessments included evidence of clinical manifestations of candidiasis and a quantitative measure of Candida pseudohyphae in a cytologic smear from the midline posterior dorsal tongue. More subjects with IDDM than control subjects without IDDM (15.1% vs 3.0%) were found to have clinical manifestations of candidiasis, including median rhomboid glossitis, denture stomatitis, and angular cheilitis. IDDM subjects were also more likely to have any Candida pseudohyphae in their cytologic smears (23.0% vs 5.7%; P 10/cm(2) (7.1% vs 0.8%; P <.0001). Diabetic subjects with median rhomboid glossitis were more likely to have a longer duration of IDDM and complications of nephropathy and retinopathy. Denture stomatitis was associated with smoking, retinopathy, higher Candida counts, poor glycemic control, and longer duration of IDDM. A multivariate regression analysis found 3 factors to be significantly associated with the presence of Candida pseudohyphae in the subjects with IDDM: current use of cigarettes (odds ratio, 2:4), use of dentures (odds ratio, 2:3), and elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (odds ratio, 1:9). The use of antimicrobials, immunosuppressants, or drugs with xerostomic side effects was not related to the presence of Candida. Candida pseudohyphae and oral soft tissue manifestations of candidiasis were more prevalent in subjects with IDDM than in control subjects without diabetes. The presence of Candida pseudohyphae was significantly associated with cigarette smoking, use of dentures, and poor glycemic control.
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              Diabetes mellitus as a contributory factor in oral candidosis.

              It has been reported that poor glycaemic control predisposes to oral candidal infection in diabetic patients. For instance, the carriage of Candida species and the density of candidal growth in the oral cavity is frequently claimed to be increased in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the validity of these observations remains controversial. Hence, we review and discuss here the clinical data in the literature on the relationship between diabetes and oral candidal carriage and infection, and possible mechanisms associated with its pathogenicity.

                Author and article information

                Iran Red Crescent Med J
                Iran Red Crescent Med J
                Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
                July 2011
                01 July 2011
                : 13
                : 7
                : 503-506
                [1 ]Department of Oral Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Oral Pathology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                [3 ]Department of Oral Prosthodontics, Dental School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                [4 ]Dentist, Shiraz, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Azadeh Andisheh Tadbir, DMD, MSc, Department of Oral Pathology, Dental School,Ghasrodasht Avenue, Shiraz, Iran. Tel.: +98-711-6263193-4, E-mail: andisheh202003@
                Copyright © 2011, Kowsar M.P. Co.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                median rhomboid glossitis, iran, diabetes mellitus


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