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Vaccination against typhoid fever in travellers: a cost-effectiveness approach.

Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Developing Countries, Humans, Incidence, Salmonella typhi, immunology, Travel, Typhoid Fever, economics, epidemiology, prevention & control, Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines, administration & dosage, Vaccination, Cost-Benefit Analysis

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      Analysis of data on the incidence of typhoid fever and the costs of vaccination of travellers to the developing world indicates that vaccination may not be cost-effective for travel to countries with a moderate-to-high endemicity. It may be reasonable to selectively vaccinate travellers to countries with a very high incidence of typhoid fever, and particularly those who are visiting relatives or who will be in close contact with the local population. Vaccination of travellers on standard tourist itineraries is probably not necessary. The basic preventative measure for typhoid fever should be the avoidance of potentially contaminated food and drink.

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