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      The Relationship between the Timing of Sugammadex Administration and the Upper Airway Obstruction during Awakening from Anesthesia: A Retrospective Study

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          Background and Objectives: The harmonization of recovery of consciousness and muscular function is important in emergence from anesthesia. Even if muscular function is recovered, tracheal extubation without adequate recovery of consciousness may increase the risk of respiratory complications. In particular, upper airway obstruction is one of the common respiratory complications and can sometimes be fatal. However, the association between the timing of sugammadex administration and the upper airway obstruction that can occur during awakening from anesthesia has rarely been studied. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 456 patients who had surgery under general endotracheal anesthesia (GETA) at the Haeundae Paik Hospital between October 2017 and July 2018 and who received intravenous sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade were analyzed. The correlations between bispectral index (BIS) and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) at the time of sugammadex administration, the incidence of complications, and the time to tracheal extubation were analyzed to investigate how different timings of sugammadex administration affected upper airway obstruction after tracheal extubation. Conclusions: The effect of BIS and the duration from anesthetic discontinuation to sugammadex administration on upper airway obstruction was not statistically significant. However, the odds ratio of complication rates with MAC < 0.3 compared with MAC ≥ 0.3 was 0.40 (95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.81, p = 0.011), showing a statistically significant increase in risk with MAC ≥ 0.3 for upper airway obstruction.

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          Determination and applications of MAC.

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            The bispectral index declines during neuromuscular block in fully awake persons.

            Bispectral index (BIS) is an electroencephalographic variable promoted for measuring depth of anesthesia. Electromyographic activity influences surface electroencephalography and the calculation of BIS. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of spontaneous electromyographic activity on BIS. BIS was monitored in three volunteers by using an Aspect A-1000 monitor. The experiment was repeated in one volunteer. Electromyographic activity was recorded. Alcuronium and succinylcholine were administered. No other drugs were used. In parallel with spontaneous electromyographic activity of the facial muscles, BIS decreased in response to muscle relaxation to a minimum value of 33 and, in the repeated measurement, to a minimum value of 9 when total neuromuscular block was achieved. In two volunteers, no total block was achieved. BIS decreased to a minimal value of 64 and 57, respectively. In turn, recovery of BIS coincided with the reappearance of spontaneous electromyographic activity. During the entire experiment, the volunteers had full consciousness. BIS, assessed by software Version 3.31, correlates with spontaneous electromyographic activity of the facial muscles. BIS failed to detect awareness in completely paralyzed subjects. Thus, in paralyzed patients, BIS monitoring may not reliably indicate a decline in sedation and imminent awareness. The bispectral index (BIS) is an electroencephalographic variable intended for measuring depth of anesthesia. Electromyographic activity influences the calculation of BIS. We found that the administration of a muscle relaxant to unanesthetized volunteers decreases the bispectral index value. Thus, awareness in totally paralyzed patients cannot be excluded.
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              Minimum alveolar concentration: ongoing relevance and clinical utility.

              Since its introduction in 1965, minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) has served as the standard measure of potency for volatile anaesthetic agents. It is defined as the minimum alveolar concentration of inhaled anaesthetic at which 50% of people do not move in response to a noxious stimulus. Within the last 20 years, it has been discovered that volatile anaesthetics inhibit mobility largely through action on the spinal cord, whereas the amnesic and hypnotic effects are mediated by the brain. Studies suggest that the concentration of volatile anaesthetic needed to prevent explicit memory from developing, and to produce unconsciousness, is usually substantially lower than the concentration required to prevent movement in response to surgery. This review highlights the contributions and limitations of MAC and its derivatives as metrics of anaesthetic potency with respect to particular behavioural outcomes. Recent evidence is presented suggesting that a protocol that alerts anaesthetists whenever MAC falls to < 0.5 or 0.7 has the potential to decrease intra-operative awareness with explicit recall, possibly to a similar extent as does a protocol based on processed electroencephalography-driven alerting. Anaesthesia © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Medicina (Kaunas)
                21 January 2021
                February 2021
                : 57
                : 2
                Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital of Inje University, 875 Haeun-daero, Haeundae-gu, Busan KS012, Korea; iceneco1120@ 123456gmail.com (E.K.); ironism00@ 123456gmail.com (B.C.L.); H00150@ 123456paik.ac.kr (J.H.P.); painlse@ 123456gmail.com (S.E.L.); anesehunkim@ 123456outlook.kr (S.H.K.); yivangin@ 123456naver.com (D.O.); H80639@ 123456paik.ac.kr (D.Y.C.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: H00319@ 123456paik.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-51-797-0423; Fax: +82-51-797-0499
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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