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      A Metabolomic Approach Applied to a Liquid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method (HPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS): Towards the Comprehensive Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Cannabis Medicinal Extracts : Metabolomics for the evaluation of cannabis medicinal extracts

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          Abstract

          Cannabis sativa L. is a powerful medicinal plant and its use has recently increased for the treatment of several pathologies. Nonetheless, side effects, like dizziness and hallucinations, and long-term effects concerning memory and cognition, can occur. Most alarming is the lack of a standardised procedure to extract medicinal cannabis. Indeed, each galenical preparation has an unknown chemical composition in terms of cannabinoids and other active principles that depends on the extraction procedure.

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          Most cited references 33

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          XCMS Online: a web-based platform to process untargeted metabolomic data.

          Recently, interest in untargeted metabolomics has become prevalent in the general scientific community among an increasing number of investigators. The majority of these investigators, however, do not have the bioinformatic expertise that has been required to process metabolomic data by using command-line driven software programs. Here we introduce a novel platform to process untargeted metabolomic data that uses an intuitive graphical interface and does not require installation or technical expertise. This platform, called XCMS Online, is a web-based version of the widely used XCMS software that allows users to easily upload and process liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry data with only a few mouse clicks. XCMS Online provides a solution for the complete untargeted metabolomic workflow including feature detection, retention time correction, alignment, annotation, statistical analysis, and data visualization. Results can be browsed online in an interactive, customizable table showing statistics, chromatograms, and putative METLIN identities for each metabolite. Additionally, all results and images can be downloaded as zip files for offline analysis and publication. XCMS Online is available at https://xcmsonline.scripps.edu.
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            Plant metabolomics: large-scale phytochemistry in the functional genomics era.

            Metabolomics or the large-scale phytochemical analysis of plants is reviewed in relation to functional genomics and systems biology. A historical account of the introduction and evolution of metabolite profiling into today's modern comprehensive metabolomics approach is provided. Many of the technologies used in metabolomics, including optical spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry are surveyed. The critical role of bioinformatics and various methods of data visualization are summarized and the future role of metabolomics in plant science assessed.
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              Systematic review: efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

              To determine the efficacy of medical marijuana in several neurologic conditions. We performed a systematic review of medical marijuana (1948-November 2013) to address treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), epilepsy, and movement disorders. We graded the studies according to the American Academy of Neurology classification scheme for therapeutic articles. Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria; 8 were rated as Class I. The following were studied in patients with MS: (1) Spasticity: oral cannabis extract (OCE) is effective, and nabiximols and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are probably effective, for reducing patient-centered measures; it is possible both OCE and THC are effective for reducing both patient-centered and objective measures at 1 year. (2) Central pain or painful spasms (including spasticity-related pain, excluding neuropathic pain): OCE is effective; THC and nabiximols are probably effective. (3) Urinary dysfunction: nabiximols is probably effective for reducing bladder voids/day; THC and OCE are probably ineffective for reducing bladder complaints. (4) Tremor: THC and OCE are probably ineffective; nabiximols is possibly ineffective. (5) Other neurologic conditions: OCE is probably ineffective for treating levodopa-induced dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson disease. Oral cannabinoids are of unknown efficacy in non-chorea-related symptoms of Huntington disease, Tourette syndrome, cervical dystonia, and epilepsy. The risks and benefits of medical marijuana should be weighed carefully. Risk of serious adverse psychopathologic effects was nearly 1%. Comparative effectiveness of medical marijuana vs other therapies is unknown for these indications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Phytochemical Analysis
                Phytochem. Anal.
                Wiley
                09580344
                March 2018
                March 2018
                September 15 2017
                : 29
                : 2
                : 144-155
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali; Università del Salento; Via per Monteroni 73100 Lecce Italy
                [2 ]CNR NANOTEC; Campus Ecoteckne dell'Università del Salento; Via per Monteroni 73100 Lecce Italy
                [3 ]Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita; Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia; Via Campi 103 41125 Modena Italy
                [4 ]Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy; Virginia Commonwealth University; Richmond VA 23298 USA
                [5 ]Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali; Università del Salento & UdR INSTM di Lecce, c/o Campus Ecotekne; Via Monteroni 73100 Lecce Italy
                [6 ]Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry; University of Graz; Schubertstraße 1 Graz A-8010 Austria
                Article
                10.1002/pca.2722
                28915313
                © 2017

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