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      Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC (Asteraceae) Extract-Loaded Nanoemulsions as a Promising Topical Wound Healing Delivery System: In Vitro Assessments in Human Keratinocytes (HaCaT) and HET-CAM Irritant Potential

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          Abstract

          Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC Asteraceae extracts (ASEs) have been investigated for the treatment of various skin disorders. This study reports the effects of ASE-loaded nanoemulsions (NEASE) on the cellular viability, death by necrosis, and migration of immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line), as well as the irritant potential through the hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane test (HET-CAM). NEASE exhibited a polydispersity index above 0.12, with a droplet size of 300 nm, ζ-potential of −40 mV, and content of flavonoids close to 1 mg/mL. No cytotoxicity of the ASE was observed on HaCaT by MTT assay (up to 10 µg/mL). A significant increase of HaCaT viability was observed to NEASE (up to 5 μg/mL of flavonoids), compared to treatment with the ASE. The necrosis death evaluation demonstrated that only NEASE did not lead to cell death at all the tested concentrations. The scratch assay demonstrated that NEASE was able to increase the cell migration at low flavonoid concentrations. Finally, the HET-CAM test proved the non-irritative potential of NEASE. Overall, the results indicate the potential of the proposed formulations for topical use in wound healing, in view of their promising effects on proliferation and migration in keratinocytes, combined with an indication of the absence of cytotoxicity and non-irritating potential.

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          Most cited references33

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          Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays

          A tetrazolium salt has been used to develop a quantitative colorimetric assay for mammalian cell survival and proliferation. The assay detects living, but not dead cells and the signal generated is dependent on the degree of activation of the cells. This method can therefore be used to measure cytotoxicity, proliferation or activation. The results can be read on a multiwell scanning spectrophotometer (ELISA reader) and show a high degree of precision. No washing steps are used in the assay. The main advantages of the colorimetric assay are its rapidity and precision, and the lack of any radioisotope. We have used the assay to measure proliferative lymphokines, mitogen stimulations and complement-mediated lysis.
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            Natural products in drug discovery: advances and opportunities

            Natural products and their structural analogues have historically made a major contribution to pharmacotherapy, especially for cancer and infectious diseases. Nevertheless, natural products also present challenges for drug discovery, such as technical barriers to screening, isolation, characterization and optimization, which contributed to a decline in their pursuit by the pharmaceutical industry from the 1990s onwards. In recent years, several technological and scientific developments — including improved analytical tools, genome mining and engineering strategies, and microbial culturing advances — are addressing such challenges and opening up new opportunities. Consequently, interest in natural products as drug leads is being revitalized, particularly for tackling antimicrobial resistance. Here, we summarize recent technological developments that are enabling natural product-based drug discovery, highlight selected applications and discuss key opportunities.
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              In vitro scratch assay: a convenient and inexpensive method for analysis of cell migration in vitro.

              The in vitro scratch assay is an easy, low-cost and well-developed method to measure cell migration in vitro. The basic steps involve creating a "scratch" in a cell monolayer, capturing the images at the beginning and at regular intervals during cell migration to close the scratch, and comparing the images to quantify the migration rate of the cells. Compared to other methods, the in vitro scratch assay is particularly suitable for studies on the effects of cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions on cell migration, mimic cell migration during wound healing in vivo and are compatible with imaging of live cells during migration to monitor intracellular events if desired. Besides monitoring migration of homogenous cell populations, this method has also been adopted to measure migration of individual cells in the leading edge of the scratch. Not taking into account the time for transfection of cells, in vitro scratch assay per se usually takes from several hours to overnight.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                PHARK5
                Pharmaceutics
                Pharmaceutics
                MDPI AG
                1999-4923
                August 2021
                August 12 2021
                : 13
                : 8
                : 1241
                Article
                10.3390/pharmaceutics13081241
                34452202
                1a68b622-7de9-406c-a6a5-a7a95a00ffd5
                © 2021

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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