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      Possible Mechanisms of Local Tissue Renin-Angiotensin System Activation in the Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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          Abstract

          The role of local tissue renin-angiotensin system (tRAS) activation in the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not well understood. To this point, we posit that early redox stress-mediated injury to tissues and organs via accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated wound healing responses might serve as a paradigm to better understand how tRAS is involved. There are at least five common categories responsible for generating ROS that may result in a positive feedback ROS-tRAS axis. These mechanisms include metabolic substrate excess, hormonal excess, hypoxia-ischemia/reperfusion, trauma, and inflammation. Because ROS are toxic to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids they may be the primary instigator, serving as the injury nidus to initiate the wound healing process. Insulin resistance is central to the development of the CRS and T2DM, and there are now thought to be four major organ systems important in their development. In states of overnutrition and tRAS activation, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle (SkM), islet tissues, and liver (the quadrumvirate) are individually and synergistically related to the development of insulin resistance, CRS, and T2DM. The obesity epidemic is thought to be the driving force behind the CRS and T2DM, which results in the impairment of multiple end-organs, including the cardiovascular system, pancreas, kidney, retina, liver, adipose tissue, SkM, and nervous system. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms leading to local tRAS activation and increases in tissue ROS may lead to new therapies emphasizing global risk reduction of ROS resulting in decreased morbidity and mortality.

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          Most cited references 89

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          The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators.

          Aldosterone is important in the pathophysiology of heart failure. In a doubleblind study, we enrolled 1663 patients who had severe heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of no more than 35 percent and who were being treated with an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, a loop diuretic, and in most cases digoxin. A total of 822 patients were randomly assigned to receive 25 mg of spironolactone daily, and 841 to receive placebo. The primary end point was death from all causes. The trial was discontinued early, after a mean follow-up period of 24 months, because an interim analysis determined that spironolactone was efficacious. There were 386 deaths in the placebo group (46 percent) and 284 in the spironolactone group (35 percent; relative risk of death, 0.70; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.82; P<0.001). This 30 percent reduction in the risk of death among patients in the spironolactone group was attributed to a lower risk of both death from progressive heart failure and sudden death from cardiac causes. The frequency of hospitalization for worsening heart failure was 35 percent lower in the spironolactone group than in the placebo group (relative risk of hospitalization, 0.65; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.77; P<0.001). In addition, patients who received spironolactone had a significant improvement in the symptoms of heart failure, as assessed on the basis of the New York Heart Association functional class (P<0.001). Gynecomastia or breast pain was reported in 10 percent of men who were treated with spironolactone, as compared with 1 percent of men in the placebo group (P<0.001). The incidence of serious hyperkalemia was minimal in both groups of patients. Blockade of aldosterone receptors by spironolactone, in addition to standard therapy, substantially reduces the risk of both morbidity and death among patients with severe heart failure.
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            Physiology of local renin-angiotensin systems.

            Since the first identification of renin by Tigerstedt and Bergmann in 1898, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been extensively studied. The current view of the system is characterized by an increased complexity, as evidenced by the discovery of new functional components and pathways of the RAS. In recent years, the pathophysiological implications of the system have been the main focus of attention, and inhibitors of the RAS such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin (ANG) II receptor blockers have become important clinical tools in the treatment of cardiovascular and renal diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy. Nevertheless, the tissue RAS also plays an important role in mediating diverse physiological functions. These focus not only on the classical actions of ANG on the cardiovascular system, namely, the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis, but also on other functions. Recently, the research efforts studying these noncardiovascular effects of the RAS have intensified, and a large body of data are now available to support the existence of numerous organ-based RAS exerting diverse physiological effects. ANG II has direct effects at the cellular level and can influence, for example, cell growth and differentiation, but also may play a role as a mediator of apoptosis. These universal paracrine and autocrine actions may be important in many organ systems and can mediate important physiological stimuli. Transgenic overexpression and knock-out strategies of RAS genes in animals have also shown a central functional role of the RAS in prenatal development. Taken together, these findings may become increasingly important in the study of organ physiology but also for a fresh look at the implications of these findings for organ pathophysiology.
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              NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later.

              The transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a major role in coordinating innate and adaptative immunity, cellular proliferation, apoptosis and development. Since the discovery in 1991 that NF-kappaB may be activated by H(2)O(2), several laboratories have put a considerable effort into dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying this activation. Whereas early studies revealed an atypical mechanism of activation, leading to IkappaBalpha Y42 phosphorylation independently of IkappaB kinase (IKK), recent findings suggest that H(2)O(2) activates NF-kappaB mainly through the classical IKK-dependent pathway. The molecular mechanisms leading to IKK activation are, however, cell-type specific and will be presented here. In this review, we also describe the effect of other ROS (HOCl and (1)O(2)) and reactive nitrogen species on NF-kappaB activation. Finally, we critically review the recent data highlighting the role of ROS in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), two major components of innate immunity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRM
                Cardiorenal Med
                10.1159/issn.1664-5502
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1664-3828
                1664-5502
                2011
                August 2011
                30 July 2011
                : 1
                : 3
                : 193-210
                Affiliations
                Departments of aInternal Medicine and bPhysiology and Pharmacology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, cDiabetes Cardiovascular Center, and dHarry S. Truman VA Medical Center, Columbia, Mo., and eKidney Specialists of Southern Nevada, Henderson, Nev., USA
                Author notes
                *M.R. Hayden, MD, D109 HSC Diabetes Center, One Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212 (USA), Tel. +1 573 884 0769, E-Mail mrh29@usmo.com
                Article
                329926 PMC3169372 Cardiorenal Med 2011;1:193–210
                10.1159/000329926
                PMC3169372
                22096455
                © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Pages: 18
                Categories
                Original Paper

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