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mRNA profiling enables the expression levels of thousands of transcripts in a cell
to be monitored simultaneously. Nevertheless, analyses in yeast and mammalian cells
have demonstrated that mRNA levels alone are unreliable indicators of the corresponding
protein abundances. This discrepancy between mRNA and protein levels argues for the
relevance of additional control mechanisms besides transcription. As translational
control is a major mechanism regulating gene expression, the use of translated mRNA
in profiling experiments might depict the proteome more closely than does the use
of total mRNA. This would combine the technical potential of genomics with the physiological
relevance of proteomics.