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      Silicon Photonic Biosensors Using Label-Free Detection

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          Abstract

          Thanks to advanced semiconductor microfabrication technology, chip-scale integration and miniaturization of lab-on-a-chip components, silicon-based optical biosensors have made significant progress for the purpose of point-of-care diagnosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in evanescent field biosensing technologies including interferometer, microcavity, photonic crystal, and Bragg grating waveguide-based sensors. Their sensing mechanisms and sensor performances, as well as real biomarkers for label-free detection, are exhibited and compared. We also review the development of chip-level integration for lab-on-a-chip photonic sensing platforms, which consist of the optical sensing device, flow delivery system, optical input and readout equipment. At last, some advanced system-level complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip packaging examples are presented, indicating the commercialization potential for the low cost, high yield, portable biosensing platform leveraging CMOS processes.

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          Most cited references263

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          Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review.

          This article reviews the recent progress in optical biosensors that use the label-free detection protocol, in which biomolecules are unlabeled or unmodified, and are detected in their natural forms. In particular, it will focus on the optical biosensors that utilize the refractive index change as the sensing transduction signal. Various optical label-free biosensing platforms will be introduced, including, but not limited to, surface plasmon resonance, interferometers, waveguides, fiber gratings, ring resonators, and photonic crystals. Emphasis will be given to the description of optical structures and their respective sensing mechanisms. Examples of detecting various types of biomolecules will be presented. Wherever possible, the sensing performance of each optical structure will be evaluated and compared in terms of sensitivity and detection limit.
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            Fiber grating sensors

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              Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules.

              Optical label-free detectors, such as the venerable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, are generally favored for their ability to obtain quantitative data on intermolecular binding. However, before the recent introduction of resonant microcavities that use whispering gallery mode (WGM) recirculation, sensitivity to single binding events had not materialized. Here we describe the enhancement mechanisms responsible for the extreme sensitivity of the WGM biosensor, review its current implementations and applications, and discuss its future possibilities.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                sensors
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                18 October 2018
                October 2018
                : 18
                : 10
                : 3519
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2329 West Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; hoshoman@ 123456ece.ubc.ca (H.S.); kcheung@ 123456ece.ubc.ca (K.C.C.); lukasc@ 123456ece.ubc.ca (L.C.)
                [2 ]Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, 3720 15th Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98195-5061, USA; dratner@ 123456uw.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: eluan@ 123456ece.ubc.ca ; Tel.: +1-(604)822-8507
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6404-5433
                Article
                sensors-18-03519
                10.3390/s18103519
                6210424
                30340405
                1a7450b6-ecbb-4a69-bd84-2e98bb479490
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 07 September 2018
                : 15 October 2018
                Categories
                Review

                Biomedical engineering
                silicon photonics,evanescent optical field sensor,label-free soi biosensor,mach–zehnder interferometer,ring resonator,photonic crystal,bragg grating,sub-wavelength grating,lab-on-a-chip,microfluidics

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