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      Prevalence of child passenger restraint use in Shantou, China from 2012 to 2017

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          Abstract

          Background

          Child passenger safety is an important public health problem in China. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of child passenger restraint use while riding in a car in the city of Shantou in China from 2012 to 2017.

          Methods

          Three large-scale cross-sectional observational studies were conducted in 2012, 2015 and 2017, respectively. The observation sites included randomly selected hospitals, kindergartens, and primary and secondary schools. The outcome measures included the changes in percentages of seating position (e.g., front vs. rear), whether sitting on lap, and use of child restraint systems (CRS) or seat belts by year and by age group. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to address the study aims.

          Results

          A total of 9858 commuting children aged 17 and younger were observed in passenger cars in Shantou, China during the study. The proportion of children aged 0–5 sitting on adult’s lap decreased from 26.6% in 2012 to 24.6% in 2017, while the proportion of CRS use among the children sitting in the rear row increased among children aged 0–5 (from 0.7% in 2012 to 14.2% in 2017) and children aged 6–11 (from 0.7% in 2012 to 2.4% in 2017). Comparing children aged 0–11 in 2012, children in the same ages were less likely to sit in the front row in 2015 (OR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.37, 0.48) and in 2017 (OR = 0.27, 95%CI = 0.23, 0.31). Children aged 0–11 were more likely to sit in the rear row with CRS use in 2015 (OR = 8.50, 95%CI = 5.44, 13.28) and in 2017 (OR = 10.95, 95%CI = 7.02, 17.08) comparing with children in the same ages in 2012. As for children aged 12–17, they were more likely to use seat belt in 2017 (OR = 1.40, 95%CI = 1.06, 1.85) compared with those children in 2012.

          Conclusions

          While child passenger safety behaviors improved from 2012 to 2017 in Shantou, China, more efforts are needed to protect child passengers from injuries.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to increase use of child safety seats.

          In 1998, nearly 600 child occupants of motor vehicles aged younger than 4 years died in motor vehicle crashes. Yet approximately 29% of children aged 4 years and younger do not ride in appropriate child safety seat restraints, which, when correctly installed and used, reduce the need for hospitalization in this age group by 69% and the risk of death by approximately 70% for infants and by 47% to 54% for toddlers (aged 1 to 4 years). The systematic review development team reviewed the scientific evidence of effectiveness for five interventions to increase child safety seat use. For each intervention, changes in the use of child safety seats or injury rates were the outcome measures evaluated to determine the success of the intervention. Database searching was concluded in March 1998. More than 3500 citations were screened; of these citations, 72 met the inclusion criteria for the reviews. The systematic review process identified strong evidence of effectiveness for child safety seat laws and distribution plus education programs. In addition, community-wide information plus enhanced enforcement campaigns and incentive plus education programs had sufficient evidence of effectiveness. Insufficient evidence was identified for education-only programs aimed at parents, young children, healthcare professionals, or law enforcement personnel. Evidence is available about the effectiveness of four of the five interventions we reviewed. This scientific evidence, along with the accompanying recommendations of the Task Force elsewhere in this supplement, can be a powerful tool for securing the resources and commitment required to implement these strategies.
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            Effectiveness of belt positioning booster seats: an updated assessment.

            The objective of this study was to provide an updated estimate of the effectiveness of belt-positioning booster (BPB) seats compared with seat belts alone in reducing the risk for injury for children aged 4 to 8 years. Data were collected from a longitudinal study of children who were involved in crashes in 16 states and the District of Columbia from December 1, 1998, to November 30, 2007, with data collected via insurance claims records and a validated telephone survey. The study sample included children who were aged 4 to 8 years, seated in the rear rows of the vehicle, and restrained by either a seat belt or a BPB seat. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds of injury for those in BPB seats versus those in seat belts. Effects of crash direction and booster seat type were also explored. Complete interview data were obtained on 7151 children in 6591 crashes representing an estimated 120646 children in 116503 crashes in the study population. The adjusted relative risk for injury to children in BPB seats compared with those in seat belts was 0.55. This study reconfirms previous reports that BPB seats reduce the risk for injury in children aged 4 through 8 years. On the basis of these analyses, parents, pediatricians, and health educators should continue to recommend as best practice the use of BPB seats once a child outgrows a harness-based child restraint until he or she is at least 8 years of age.
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              Parents' knowledge, attitude, and use of child restraints, Shantou, China.

              China has not adopted national policies for child safety restraints in cars, although children are increasingly traveling in cars. To describe child restraint use, and parents' knowledge of and attitude toward child restraint in Shantou, China. An observational study and driver survey on child restraint use was conducted in the Southeast China city of Shantou in 2012. Observational sites included 22 middle schools, 31 primary schools, 24 kindergartens, and 4 hospitals. Drivers were asked about their knowledge of and attitude toward the use of child restraints. In September 2012, multivariate regression was used to evaluate the factors associated with increased child restraint use. Of 3333 children observed in vehicles, only 22 (0.6%) children were secured in child safety seats or booster seats and 292 (8.7%) children were wearing seatbelts. More than half (n=508, 56.1%) of the infants or toddlers were riding on the laps of adults. Of 1069 drivers who responded to the survey, more than 62% thought it was necessary to use child restraint while traveling in a car. The drivers' higher education status (OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.07, 2.27) and seatbelt use (OR=4.00, 95% CI=2.56, 6.25) were associated with increased child restraint use. Parents (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.34, 0.88) and male drivers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.46, 0.81) had reduced odds of children properly rear-seated. Child restraint use is very low in China, although the majority of drivers had positive attitudes about child restraint. These findings indicate that child restraint policies and educational approaches are urgently needed in China. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                lpli@stu.edu.cn
                Journal
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2458
                29 May 2020
                29 May 2020
                2020
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411679.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0605 3373, Injury Prevention Research Center, , Shantou University Medical College, ; Shantou, Guangdong Province China
                [2 ]GRID grid.258518.3, ISNI 0000 0001 0656 9343, Department of Health Sciences, , Kent State University, ; Kent, OH USA
                [3 ]GRID grid.240344.5, ISNI 0000 0004 0392 3476, Center for Injury Research and Policy, , The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, ; Columbus, OH USA
                Article
                8859
                10.1186/s12889-020-08859-3
                7257449
                32471397
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

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                © The Author(s) 2020

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