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      Potential Health Impacts of Hard Water

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          Abstract

          In the past five decades or so evidence has been accumulating about an environmental factor, which appears to be influencing mortality, in particular, cardiovascular mortality, and this is the hardness of the drinking water. In addition, several epidemiological investigations have demonstrated the relation between risk for cardiovascular disease, growth retardation, reproductive failure, and other health problems and hardness of drinking water or its content of magnesium and calcium. In addition, the acidity of the water influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in the renal tubule. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. Thus, the present review attempts to explore the health effects of hard water and its constituents.

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          Most cited references 93

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          Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women.

          To examine the association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. We followed 85,060 women and 42,872 men who had no history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. Magnesium intake was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire every 2-4 years. After 18 years of follow-up in women and 12 years in men, we documented 4,085 and 1,333 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, respectively. After adjusting for age, BMI, physical activity, family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, and history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia at baseline, the relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes was 0.66 (95% CI 0.60-0.73; P for trend <0.001) in women and 0.67 (0.56-0.80; P for trend <0.001) in men, comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of total magnesium intake. The RRs remained significant after additional adjustment for dietary variables, including glycemic load, polyunsaturated fat, trans fat, cereal fiber, and processed meat in the multivariate models. The inverse association persisted in subgroup analyses according to BMI, physical activity, and family history of diabetes. Our findings suggest a significant inverse association between magnesium intake and diabetes risk. This study supports the dietary recommendation to increase consumption of major food sources of magnesium, such as whole grains, nuts, and green leafy vegetables.
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            British Regional Heart Study: cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men in 24 towns.

            The British Regional Heart Study seeks to define risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to examine their interrelationships, and to explain the geographic variations in cardiovascular disease in Britain. A clinical survey of men aged 40-59 in 24 British towns was carried out and preliminary data from the survey analysed. On a town basis cardiovascular mortality was associated with mean systolic blood pressure and the prevalence of heavy cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption. No such association was seen for body mass index or mean serum total cholesterol or high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Cigarette smoking and alcohol intake and, to a less degree, systolic blood pressure were related to the social class (percentage of manual workers) of a town, and these factors may determine to some extent the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in manual workers. Blood pressure in individual subjects was affected predominantly by age, body mass index, and alcohol intake. Body mass index appeared to affect blood pressure to a greater extent than alcohol intake and did so with a consistent and positive linear trend. Nevertheless, the differences between towns in mean blood pressure readings appeared to be more closely associated with variations in the prevalence of heavy drinking than with variations in body mass index. Alcohol intake and body mass index explained only a part of the striking differences between towns in mean blood pressure readings, and some important "town"factors remained unexplained.
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              Relationship of magnesium intake and other dietary factors to blood pressure: the Honolulu heart study.

              Associations between blood pressure and intakes of 61 dietary variables assessed by 24-h recall method were investigated in 615 men of Japanese ancestry living in Hawaii who had no history of cardiovascular disease or treated hypertension. Magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, fiber, vegetable protein, starch, vitamin C, and vitamin D intakes were significant variables that showed inverse associations with blood pressure in univariate and a multivariate analyses. Magnesium had the strongest association with blood pressure, which supports recent interest in its relation to blood pressure. Nevertheless, it was not possible to separate the effect of magnesium from that of other variables because of the problem of high intercorrelation among many nutrients. While recommendations based upon cross-sectional studies must be viewed cautiously, these results suggest that foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and low-fat dairy items are major sources of nutrients that may be protective against hypertension.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Prev Med
                Int J Prev Med
                IJPVM
                International Journal of Preventive Medicine
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                2008-7802
                2008-8213
                August 2013
                : 4
                : 8
                : 866-875
                Affiliations
                Department of Physiology, Vidyasagar College for Women, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr. Pallav Sengupta, Department of Physiology, Vidyasagar College for Women, 39, Sankar Ghosh Lane, University of Calcutta, Kolkata - 700 006, West Bengal, India. E-mail: sunny_pallav_1984@ 123456yahoo.co.in
                Article
                IJPVM-4-866
                3775162
                24049611
                Copyright: © International Journal of Preventive Medicine

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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