Neurogenesis is an important progress wherein the neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiate into functional neurons under conductive conditions. Neurogenesis occurs continuously in different areas of the central neural system in adult teleosts compared with adult mammals. Therefore, NSC cell lines must be established to offer a valuable in vitro system for studies on neurogenesis and other related functions. In this study, four cell lines designated as PoB1, PoB2, PoBf and PoBh were established from the brain of the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The cell lines were sub-cultured over 150 times and still grew well in DMEM/F12 medium at 24°C. PoB1, PoB2, PoBf and PoBh were identified as neural stem/progenitor cell lines on the basis of the mRNA expression of nestin and/or aldh1l1 or slc6a4 and the formation of neurospheres. The cells transfected with the pEGFP-C1 plasmid showed fluorescent signals with distinct reagent dependencies. The established cell lines from the brain of P. olivaceus offer a valuable system in vitro for the study of neurogenesis, fish neural regulation and endocrinology-related functions.