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      Molecular detection of Porcine circovirus type 2 in swine herds of Eastern Cape Province South Africa

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          Abstract

          Background

          Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) remains the main causative viral pathogen of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD) of great economic importance in pig industry globally. This present study aims at determining the occurrence of the viral pathogen in swine herds of the Province.

          Results

          The data obtained revealed that 15.93% of the screened samples (54/339) from the swine herds of the studied areas were positive for PCV2; while the severity of occurrence of the viral pathogen as observed at farm level ranges from approximately 5.6 to 60% in the studied farms. The majority (15 out of 17 = 88%) of the analyzed sequences were found clustering with other PCV2b strains in the phylogenetic analysis. More interestingly, two other sequences obtained were also found clustering within PCV2d genogroup, which is presently another fast-spreading genotype with observable higher virulence in global swine herds.

          Conclusion

          This is the first report of PCV2 in swine herds of the Province and the first detection of PCV2b and PCV2d in South African swine herds. It follows the first reported case of PCV2a in an outbreak of porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Gauteng Province, South Africa more than one decade ago. This finding confirmed the presence of this all-important viral pathogen in pigs of the region; which could result in a serious outbreak of PCVAD and huge economic loss at the instances of triggering factors if no appropriate measures are taken to effectively curb its spread.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12866-017-1121-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Insights into the evolutionary history of an emerging livestock pathogen: porcine circovirus 2.

          Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is the primary etiological agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), one of the most economically important emerging swine diseases worldwide. Virulent PCV2 was first identified following nearly simultaneous outbreaks of PMWS in North America and Europe in the 1990s and has since achieved global distribution. However, the processes responsible for the emergence and spread of PCV2 remain poorly understood. Here, phylogenetic and cophylogenetic inferences were utilized to address key questions on the time scale, processes, and geographic diffusion of emerging PCV2. The results of these analyses suggest that the two genotypes of PCV2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) are likely to have emerged from a common ancestor approximately 100 years ago and have been on independent evolutionary trajectories since that time, despite cocirculating in the same host species and geographic regions. The patterns of geographic movement of PCV2 that we recovered appear to mimic those of the global pig trade and suggest that the movement of asymptomatic animals is likely to have facilitated the rapid spread of virulent PCV2 around the globe. We further estimated the rate of nucleotide substitution for PCV2 to be on the order of 1.2 x 10(-3) substitutions/site/year, the highest yet recorded for a single-stranded DNA virus. This high rate of evolution may allow PCV2 to maintain evolutionary dynamics closer to those of single-stranded RNA viruses than to those of double-stranded DNA viruses, further facilitating the rapid emergence of PCV2 worldwide.
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            Genomic analysis of PCV2 isolates from Danish archives and a current PMWS case-control study supports a shift in genotypes with time.

            Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary cause of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. PCV2, however, is found in both PMWS-affected herds and non-affected herds. The objective of this study was to clarify if PCV2 genome nucleotide sequences isolated from pigs from PMWS-affected herds and non-affected herds cluster phylogenetically in two separate groups. All isolates (45) belonged to PCV2 group 1 and shared a nucleotide sequence identity of 99.4-100% indicating a very homogeneous PCV2 population in Denmark. Phylogenetic analysis of the PCV2 isolates revealed no distinctive clustering of case- and control-herds suggesting that there is no link between PCV2 sequences and herd disease status. The appearance of only PCV2 group 1 isolates in this study (isolates from 2003/2004) led us to determine if PCV2 nucleotide sequences had changed in Denmark over time. Interestingly, all PCV2 isolates from before the first outbreak of PMWS (2001) belonged either to a new PCV2 group identified for the first time in this study and named group 3 (isolates from 1980, 1987 and 1990) or PCV2 group 2 (isolates from 1993 and 1996). The shift from PCV2 group 2 to 1 was confirmed on a more global scale by placing all full genome PCV2 sequences submitted to GenBank from 1997 to 2006 in either of the groups by phylogenetic analysis. The analysis showed that the shift happened in 2003 or even earlier. This may indicate that PCV2 group 1 is a more adapted form of PCV2 and possibly could be more pathogenic.
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              Porcine Circovirus Type 2 and Porcine Circovirus‐Associated Disease

              Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) belongs to the viral family Circoviridae and to the genus Circovirus. Circoviruses are small, single‐stranded nonenveloped DNA viruses that have an unsegmented circular genome. PCV2 is the primary causative agent of several syndromes collectively known as porcine circovirus‐associated disease (PCVAD). Many of the syndromes associated with PCVAD are a result of coinfection with PCV2 virus and other agents such as Mycoplasma and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. PCV2 infection is present in every major swine‐producing country in the world, and the number of identified cases of PCVAD is rapidly increasing. In the United States, the disease has cost producers an average of 3–4 dollars per pig with peak losses ranging up to 20 dollars per pig. The importance of this disease has stimulated investigations aimed at identifying risk factors associated with infection and minimizing these risks through modified management practices and development of vaccination strategies. This paper provides an overview of current knowledge relating to PCV2 and PCVAD with an emphasis on information relevant to the swine veterinarian.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                kayodeolayinkaafolabi@gmail.com , 201512532@ufh.ac.za
                biweriebor@ufh.ac.za
                lobi@ufh.ac.za
                aokoh@ufh.ac.za
                Journal
                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2180
                2 November 2017
                2 November 2017
                2017
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2152 8048, GRID grid.413110.6, Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, , University of Fort Hare, ; Private Bag X1314, Alice, Eastern Cape Province 5700 South Africa
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2152 8048, GRID grid.413110.6, SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, , University of Fort Hare, ; Private Bag X1314, Alice, Eastern Cape Province 5700 South Africa
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2152 8048, GRID grid.413110.6, Academic and Research Division, , University of Fort Hare, ; Private Bag X1314, Alice, Eastern Cape Province South Africa
                Article
                1121
                10.1186/s12866-017-1121-4
                5669008
                29096613
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: South African Medical Research Council (ZA)
                Award ID: SAMRC/UFH/P790
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001321, National Research Foundation;
                Award ID: 109622
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Microbiology & Virology

                south africa, eastern cape province, porcine circovirus type 2

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