+1 Recommend
1 collections

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on the design and development of drugs, as well as the clinical outcomes, patient safety, and programs targeted at the effective and safe use of medicines. Sign up for email alerts here.

      88,007 Monthly downloads/views I 4.319 Impact Factor I 6.6 CiteScore I 1.12 Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) I 0.784 Scimago Journal & Country Rank (SJR)


      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Adjuvant immunotherapy of dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells is safe and enhances chemotherapy efficacy for multiple myeloma in China: a meta-analysis of clinical trials


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells (DC–CIK) adjuvant immunotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM).


          Clinical trials were gathered by searching Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, and CNKI database. Outcome measurements including therapeutic efficacy, prognosis, immune function, and adverse events were extracted and evaluated.


          A total of 12 trials including 594 MM patients were involved in this study for statistical analysis. Results indicated that compared to chemotherapy alone, the combination of DC–CIK immunotherapy with chemotherapy significantly improved patients’ overall response rate (ORR, odds ratio [OR] =2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.88–4.10, P<0.00001), disease control rate (DCR, OR =2.90, CI =1.72–4.90, P<0.0001), and life quality ( P<0.00001). The combined therapy showed advantages over chemotherapy alone in prognostic indicators including percentage of tumor cells ( P=0.04), serum levels of β2-microglobin ( P<0.0001), M protein ( P<0.00001), and creatinine ( P<0.0001), and 24 h urine light chains ( P<0.00001). After combined treatment, CD4 + lymphocyte subsets’ percentages, CD4 +/CD8 + ratio, and cytokines levels of AgNOR, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-12 were significantly increased ( P<0.05), whereas CD8 + and CD4 +CD25 + percentages and IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β levels were obviously decreased ( P<0.01), indicating a recovered immune condition.


          Adjuvant DC–CIK immunotherapy enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy for MM and improves prognosis probably by reconstructing immune function.

          Most cited references44

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Quantifying the impact of between-study heterogeneity in multivariate meta-analyses

          Measures that quantify the impact of heterogeneity in univariate meta-analysis, including the very popular I 2 statistic, are now well established. Multivariate meta-analysis, where studies provide multiple outcomes that are pooled in a single analysis, is also becoming more commonly used. The question of how to quantify heterogeneity in the multivariate setting is therefore raised. It is the univariate R 2 statistic, the ratio of the variance of the estimated treatment effect under the random and fixed effects models, that generalises most naturally, so this statistic provides our basis. This statistic is then used to derive a multivariate analogue of I 2, which we call . We also provide a multivariate H 2 statistic, the ratio of a generalisation of Cochran's heterogeneity statistic and its associated degrees of freedom, with an accompanying generalisation of the usual I 2 statistic, . Our proposed heterogeneity statistics can be used alongside all the usual estimates and inferential procedures used in multivariate meta-analysis. We apply our methods to some real datasets and show how our statistics are equally appropriate in the context of multivariate meta-regression, where study level covariate effects are included in the model. Our heterogeneity statistics may be used when applying any procedure for fitting the multivariate random effects model. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Adjuvant immunotherapy with autologous cytokine-induced killer cells for hepatocellular carcinoma.

            No adjuvant therapy has been shown to extend the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving curative treatment. We investigated whether injections of activated cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells (CD3+/CD56+ and CD3+/CD56- T cells and CD3-/CD56+ natural killer cells) prolongs recurrence-free survival of patients after curative therapy for HCC.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Treatment options for relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.

              Over the last few decades, significant improvement in outcomes has been observed for myeloma patients, mainly as a result of the use of currently available approved antimyeloma agents, along with combining autologous stem cell transplantation in the treatment of myeloma. With more targeted agents in development, the treatment of a myeloma patient at relapse has become complicated and, as a consequence, results in vast heterogeneity in treatment patterns. Although a consensus on the timing of initiation of treatment, the choice of agents to be used, and the role of transplant is less clear, we describe an evidence-based approach and the factors to consider upon relapse. We describe additional newer agents and targets that are under development, with the goal of achievement of durable remissions for myeloma patients.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                15 November 2017
                : 11
                : 3245-3256
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Laboratory
                [2 ]Department of Blood Transfusion
                [3 ]Department of Central Laboratory, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng Clinical School of Taishan Medical University, Liaocheng, Shandong Province, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hong Liu; Anqi Zhang, Department of Central Laboratory, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng Clinical School of Taishan Medical University, Dongchang West Road, No 67, Liaocheng 252000, Shandong Province, China, Tel +86 130 3453 4783; +86 158 0635 8395, Email liuh4783@ 123456126.com ; zhang_angela1119@ 123456163.com
                © 2017 Wang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                cytokine-induced killer cells,dendritic cells,multiple myeloma,adjuvant immu-notherapy,meta-analysis


                Comment on this article