1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment on Cognitive Function and Head Circumference in Children Born Small for Gestational Age

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Short stature is not the only problem faced by children born small for gestational age (SGA). Being born SGA has also been associated with lowered intelligence, poor academic performance, low social competence and behavioural problems. This paper summarizes the results of a randomized, double-blind, growth hormone (GH) dose-response study (1 or 2 mg/m<sup>2</sup>/day [∼0.035 or 0.07 mg/kg/day]) on growth, intelligence quotient (IQ) and psychosocial functioning in 79 children born SGA at the start, and after 2 and 8 years of GH therapy, and addresses the associations with head circumference. Mean age at start of therapy was 7.4 years; mean duration of GH treatment was 8.0 years. In 2001, 91% of children born SGA had reached a normal height (> –2.0 standard deviation score [SDS]). Block-design s-score (Performal IQ) and Total IQ score increased (p< 0.001 for both indices) from scores significantly lower than those of Dutch peers at the start of therapy (p < 0.001) to scores that were comparable to those of Dutch peers in 2001. Vocabulary s-score (Verbal IQ) was normal at the start of therapy and remained so over time. Externalizing Problem Behaviour SDS and Total Problem Behaviour SDS improved during GH therapy (p < 0.01–0.05) to scores comparable to those of Dutch peers. Internalizing Problem Behaviour SDS was comparable to that of Dutch peers at the start of therapy and remained so, whereas Self-Perception improved from the start of GH therapy until 2001 (p < 0.001), when it reached normal scores. Head circumference SDS at the start of GH therapy and head growth during GH therapy were positively related to all IQ scores (p < 0.01), whereas neither were related to height SDS at the start of, or to its improvement during, GH therapy. A significant improvement in height and head circumference in children born SGA was seen after only 3 years of GH therapy, in contrast to randomized SGA controls. In conclusion, most children born SGA showed a normalization of height during GH therapy and, in parallel to this, a significant improvement in Performal IQ and Total IQ. In addition, problem behaviour and self-perception improved significantly. Interestingly, Performal, Verbal and Total IQ scores were positively related to head circumference, both at the start of, and during, GH therapy; head circumference increased in GH-treated children born SGA, but not in untreated SGA controls. These results are encouraging but also warrant confirmational studies and further investigations into the effects of GH on the central nervous system.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 8

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Adult height after long-term, continuous growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children born small for gestational age: results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response GH trial.

          The GH dose-response effect of long-term continuous GH treatment on adult height (AH) was evaluated in 54 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) who were participating in a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial. Patients were randomly and blindly assigned to treatment with either 3 IU (group A) or 6 IU (group B) GH/m(2).d ( approximately 0.033 or 0.067 mg/kg.d, respectively). The mean (+/-SD) birth length was -3.6 (1.4), the age at the start of the study was 8.1 (1.9) yr, and the height SD score (SDS) at the start of the study -3.0 (0.7). Seventeen of the 54 children were partially GH deficient (stimulated GH peak, 10-20 mU/liter). Fifteen non-GH-treated, non-GH-deficient, short children born SGA, with similar inclusion criteria, served as controls [mean (+/-SD) birth length, -3.3 (1.2); age at start, 7.8 (1.7) yr; height SDS at start, -2.6 (0.5)]. GH treatment resulted in an AH above -2 SDS in 85% of the children after a mean (+/-SD) GH treatment period of 7.8 (1.7) yr. The mean (SD) AH SDS was -1.1 (0.7) for group A and -0.9 (0.8) for group B, resulting from a mean (+/-SD) gain in height SDS of 1.8 (0.7) for group A and 2.1 (0.8) for group B. No significant differences between groups A and B were found for AH SDS (mean difference, 0.3 SDS; 95% confidence interval, -0.2, 0.6; P > 0.2) and gain in height SDS (mean difference, 0.3 SDS; 95% confidence interval, -0.1, 0.7; P > 0.1). When corrected for target height, the mean corrected AH SDS was -0.2 (0.8) for group A and -0.4 (0.9) for group B. The mean (+/-SD) AH SDS of the control group [-2.3 (0.7)] was significantly lower than that of the GH-treated group (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis indicated the following predictive variables for AH SDS: target height SDS, height SDS, and chronological age minus bone age (years) at the start of the study. GH dose had no significant effect. In conclusion, long-term continuous GH treatment in short children born SGA without signs of persistent catch-up growth leads to a normalization of AH, even with a GH dose of 3 IU/m(2).d ( approximately 0.033 mg/kg.d).
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Intelligence and psychosocial functioning during long-term growth hormone therapy in children born small for gestational age.

            Short stature is not the only problem faced by small for gestational age (SGA) children. Being born SGA has also been associated with lowered intelligence, poor academic performance, low social competence, and behavioral problems. Although GH treatment in short children born SGA can result in a normalization of height during childhood, the effect of GH treatment on intelligence and psychosocial functioning remains to be investigated. We show the longitudinal results of a randomized, double-blind, GH-dose response study initiated in 1991 to follow growth, intelligence quotient (IQ), and psychosocial functioning in SGA children during long-term GH treatment. Patients were assigned to one of two treatment groups (1 or 2 mg GH/m(2) body surface.d, or approximately 0.035 or 0.07 mg/kg.d). Intelligence and psychosocial functioning were evaluated at start of GH treatment (n = 74), after 2 yr of GH treatment (n = 76), and in 2001 (n = 53). IQ was assessed by a short-form Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Block-design and Vocabulary subtests). Behavioral problems were measured by the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Young Adult Behavior Checklist, and self-perception was measured by the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Mean (sem) birth length sd score was -3.6 (0.2), mean age and height at start was 7.4 (0.2) yr and -3.0 (0.1) sd score, respectively, mean duration of GH treatment was 8.0 (0.2) yr, and mean age in 2001 was 16.5 (0.3) yr. After 2 yr of GH treatment, 96% of both GH groups showed a height gain sd score of 1 sd from the start of treatment or more, resulting in a normal height (i.e. height >/= -2.0 sd for age and sex) in 70% of the children. In 2001, 48 (91%) of the 53 children participating in this study had reached a normal height. Block-design s-score and the estimated total IQ significantly increased (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) from scores significantly lower than Dutch peers at start (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) to comparable scores in 2001. The increase over time for the Vocabulary s-score was not significant. Internalizing Behavior sd scores remained comparable to Dutch peers, whereas Externalizing Behavior sd scores and Total Problem Behavior sd scores improved significantly during GH therapy (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) to scores comparable to Dutch peers. Self-perception sd scores improved from start of GH treatment until 2001 (P < 0.001) to scores significantly higher than Dutch peers (P < 0.05). No significant differences between the two GH dosage groups were found. Improvement in Externalizing and Total Problem Behavior sd scores over time was significantly related to change in height sd score (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), whereas scores over time for Vocabulary, Block-design, Internalizing, or total Harter Self-Perception score were not related to change in height sd scores. In conclusion, parallel to a GH-induced catch-up growth in adolescents born SGA, IQ, behavior, and self-perception showed a significant improvement over time from scores below average to scores comparable to Dutch peers. In addition, children whose height over time became closer to that of their peers showed less problem behavior.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Spontaneous 24-hour growth hormone profiles in prepubertal small for gestational age children

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8063-2
                978-3-318-01309-2
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2005
                February 2006
                27 January 2006
                : 64
                : Suppl 3
                : 95-99
                Affiliations
                Department of Paediatrics, Division of Endocrinology, Sophia Children’s Hospital/Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                Article
                89324 Horm Res 2005;64:95–99
                10.1159/000089324
                16439851
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 23, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Neurocognition

                Comments

                Comment on this article