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      Modifying Threat-related Interpretive Bias in Adolescents


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          Socially anxious feelings sharply increase during adolescence and such feelings have been associated with interpretive biases. Studies in adults have shown that interpretive biases can be modified using Cognitive Bias Modification procedures (CBM-I) and subsequent effects on anxiety have been observed. The current study was designed to examine whether the CBM-I procedure has similar effects in adolescents. Unselected adolescents were randomly allocated to either a positive interpretation training ( n = 88) or a placebo-control condition ( n = 82). Results revealed that the training was successful in modifying interpretations and effects generalized to a new task. The interpretive bias effects were most pronounced in individuals with a threat-related interpretive bias at pre-test. No effects on state anxiety were observed. The current findings are promising with regard to applying bias modification procedures to adolescents, while further research is warranted regarding emotional effects.

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          Most cited references37

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          Life course outcomes of young people with anxiety disorders in adolescence.

          This study examined associations between the extent of anxiety disorder in adolescence (14-16 years) and young people's later risks of a range of mental health, educational, and social role outcomes (16-21 years). Data were gathered over the course of a 21-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children. Measures collected included (1) an assessment of DSM-III-R anxiety disorders between the ages of 14 and 16 years; (2) assessments of mental health, educational achievement, and social functioning between the ages of 16 and 21 years; and (3) measures of potentially confounding social, family, and individual factors. Significant linear associations were found between the number of anxiety disorders reported in adolescence and later risks of anxiety disorder; major depression; nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drug dependence; suicidal behavior; educational underachievement; and early parenthood. Associations between the extent of adolescent anxiety disorder and later risks of anxiety disorder, depression, illicit drug dependence, and failure to attend university were shown to persist after statistical control for the confounding effects of sociofamilial and individual factors. Findings suggest that adolescents with anxiety disorders are at an increased risk of subsequent anxiety, depression, illicit drug dependence, and educational underachievement as young adults. Clinical and research implications are considered.
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              Mental imagery and emotion: a special relationship?

              A special association between imagery and emotion is often assumed, despite little supporting evidence. In Experiment 1, participants imagined unpleasant events or listened to the same descriptions while thinking about their verbal meaning. Those in the imagery condition reported more anxiety and rated new descriptions as more emotional than did those in the verbal condition. In Experiment 2, 4 groups listened to either benign or unpleasant descriptions, again with imagery or verbal processing instructions. Anxiety again increased more after unpleasant (but not benign) imagery; however, emotionality ratings did not differ after a 10-min filler task. Results support the hypothesis of a special link between imagery and anxiety but leave open the question of whether this also applies to other emotions. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                +31-205258663 , +31-206390279 , E.Salemink@uva.nl
                J Abnorm Child Psychol
                Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
                Springer US (Boston )
                25 May 2011
                25 May 2011
                October 2011
                : 39
                : 7
                : 967-976
                Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                © The Author(s) 2011
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                interpretive bias,cognitive bias modification,anxiety,adolescence


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