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      Aborted fetal sizes of Thoroughbred horses in Hidaka, Japan, between 2005 and 2015

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          ABSTRACT

          The degree of fetal growth restriction has been unclear in equine reproduction. In this study, 2,195 fetuses from 2,137 abortions during 11 seasons were examined to determine the causes of abortion, and fetal size dimensions (crown rump length and body weight) were measured. In total, 900 cases (42.1%) of abortion were identified as caused by viral infection (215, 10.1%), bacterial infection (156, 7.3%), fungal infection (25, 1.2%), circulation failure (406, 19.0%), multiple causes (66, 3.1%), deformity (13, 0.6%), placental abnormality (12, 0.6%), and other causes (7, 0.3%). All viral infections originated from equine herpes virus. Of all abortions, 94.3% occurred between 181–360 days of pregnancy, and the gestational ages at abortion were different based on the causes. Fetal sizes in viral abortions were considerably larger than those due to other reasons. Compared with viral infection, the crown rump length size dimension of fetuses aborted from multiple and fungal infection was affected. In addition, bacterial infection, circulation failure, and unknown causes of abortions also contributed to growth restriction in terms of body weight. In conclusion, the present study showed details of equine abortion and the relationships between causes of abortion and fetal size. Most of the aborted fetuses showed restrictions in their growth. The manifestations of growth restriction were more related to weight than skeletal length.

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          Current concepts in intrauterine growth restriction.

          Regulation of fetal growth is multifactorial and complex. Diverse factors, including intrinsic fetal conditions as well as maternal and environmental factors, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The interaction of these factors governs the partitioning of nutrients and rate of fetal cellular proliferation and maturation. Although IUGR is probably a physiologic adaptive response to various stimuli, it is associated with distinct short- and long-term morbidities. Immediate morbidities include those associated with prematurity and inadequate nutrient reserve, while childhood morbidities relate to impaired maturation and disrupted organ development. Potential long-term effects of IUGR are debated and explained by the fetal programming hypothesis. In formulating a comprehensive approach to the management and follow-up of the growth-restricted fetus and infant, physicians should take into consideration the etiology, timing, and severity of IUGR. In addition, they should be cognizant of the immediate perinatal response of the growth-restricted infant as well as the childhood and long-term associated morbidities. A multi disciplinary approach is imperative, including early recognition and obstetrical management of IUGR, assessment of the growth-restricted newborn in the delivery room, possible monitoring in the neonatal intensive care unit, and appropriate pediatric follow-up. Future research is necessary to establish effective preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies for IUGR, perhaps affecting the health of future generations.
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            Diagnosis and Management of Fetal Growth Restriction

            Fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains a leading contributor to perinatal mortality and morbidity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Recent advances in ultrasound and Doppler have elucidated several mechanisms in the evolution of the disease. However, consistent classification and characterization regarding the severity of FGR is lacking. There is no cure, and management is reliant on a structured antenatal surveillance program with timely intervention. Hitherto, the time to deliver is an enigma. In this paper, the challenges in the diagnosis and management of FGR are discussed. The biophysical profile, Doppler, biochemical and molecular technologies that may refine management are reviewed. Finally, a model pathway for the clinical management of pregnancies complicated by FGR is presented.
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              Causes of abortion, stillbirth, and perinatal death in horses: 3,527 cases (1986-1991).

              Pathology case records of 3,514 aborted fetuses, stillborn foals, or foals that died < 24 hours after birth and of 13 placentas from mares whose foals were weak or unthrifty at birth were reviewed to determine the cause of abortion, death, or illness. Fetoplacental infection caused by bacteria (n = 628), equine herpesvirus (143), fungi (61), or placentitis (351), in which an etiologic agent could not be defined, was the most common diagnosis. Complications of birth, including neonatal asphyxia, dystocia, or trauma, were the second most common cause of mortality and were diagnosed in 19% of the cases (679). Other common diagnoses were placental edema or premature separation of placenta (249), development of twins (221), contracted foal syndrome (188), other congenital anomalies (160), and umbilical cord abnormalities (121). Less common conditions were placental villous atrophy or body pregnancy (81), fetal diarrhea syndrome (34), and neoplasms or miscellaneous conditions (26). A diagnosis was not established in 16% of the cases seen (585). The study revealed that leptospirosis (78) was an important cause of bacterial abortion in mares, and that infection by a nocardioform actinomycete (45) was an important cause of chronic placentitis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Equine Sci
                J Equine Sci
                JES
                Journal of Equine Science
                The Japanese Society of Equine Science
                1340-3516
                1347-7501
                06 July 2017
                2017
                : 28
                : 2
                : 47-53
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Equine Science Division, Hidaka Training and Research Center, Japan Racing Association, Hokkaido 057-0171, Japan
                [2 ]Hokkaido Hidaka Livestock Hygiene Service Center, Hokkaido 056-0003, Japan
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author. e-mail: harutaka_murase@ 123456jra.go.jp
                Article
                1707
                10.1294/jes.28.47
                5506449
                1a96c3cc-92fe-4d51-abf3-6cb9807d6e73
                2017 The Japanese Society of Equine Science

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License. (CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

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                Full Paper

                abortion,causes of abortion,fetal size,fgr
                abortion, causes of abortion, fetal size, fgr

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