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      Counting blessings versus burdens: an experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life.

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          Abstract

          The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J Pers Soc Psychol
          Journal of personality and social psychology
          American Psychological Association (APA)
          0022-3514
          0022-3514
          Feb 2003
          : 84
          : 2
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis 95616, USA. raemmons@ucdavis.edu
          Article
          10.1037//0022-3514.84.2.377
          12585811
          1a99bfcf-2fd5-4794-b0d8-5b182d211839
          History

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