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      Gender Differences in Patients With COVID-19: Focus on Severity and Mortality

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          Abstract

          Objective: The recent outbreak of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is reminiscent of the SARS outbreak in 2003. We aim to compare the severity and mortality between male and female patients with COVID-19 or SARS.

          Study Design and Setting: We extracted the data from: (1) a case series of 43 hospitalized patients we treated, (2) a public data set of the first 37 cases of patients who died of COVID-19 and 1,019 patients who survived in China, and (3) data of 524 patients with SARS, including 139 deaths, from Beijing in early 2003.

          Results: Older age and a high number of comorbidities were associated with higher severity and mortality in patients with both COVID-19 and SARS. Age was comparable between men and women in all data sets. In the case series, however, men's cases tended to be more serious than women's ( P = 0.035). In the public data set, the number of men who died from COVID-19 is 2.4 times that of women (70.3 vs. 29.7%, P = 0.016). In SARS patients, the gender role in mortality was also observed. The percentage of males were higher in the deceased group than in the survived group ( P = 0.015).

          Conclusion: While men and women have the same prevalence, men with COVID-19 are more at risk for worse outcomes and death, independent of age.

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Emerging markers in cardiovascular disease: where does angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 fit in?

            The renin-angiotensin system plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin (Ang) I into the vasoconstrictor AngII and was thought, until recently, to be the main effector of the system. The enzyme ACE2, discovered in 2000, can counterbalance the effects of ACE through degradation of AngII and generation of Ang-(1-7). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is abundantly expressed in the heart and localized to the endothelial cells of coronary vessels and smooth muscle cells. Its catalytically active ectodomain undergoes shedding, resulting in ACE2 in the circulation. There are 10 studies to date that have measured circulating ACE2 activity in humans, including in healthy subjects and those with heart failure, Type 1 diabetes, implantable cardioverter/defibrillator, elderly subjects undergoing emergency orthopaedic surgery and kidney transplant patients. The results suggest that circulating ACE2 activity may be a marker of CVD, with low levels in healthy individuals and increased levels in those with cardiovascular risk factors or disease. Whether increased plasma ACE2 activity reflects increased synthesis from tissue ACE2 mRNA or increased shedding of tissue ACE2 remains to be determined. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is located on the X-chromosome and circulating ACE2 levels are higher in men than in women. Large clinical studies in CVD are needed to more precisely clarify the role of ACE2 as a biomarker of CVD, determine the prognostic significance of circulating ACE2 activity and assess whether the measurement of ACE2 will improve CVD risk prediction. © 2013 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
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              Gender differences in patients with COVID-19: Focus on severity and mortality

              Importance: The recent outbreak of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Disease (COVID-19) has put the world on alert, that is reminiscent of the SARS outbreak seventeen years ago. Objective: We aim to compare the severity and mortality between male and female patients with both COVID-19 and SARS, to explore the most useful prognostic factors for individualized assessment. Design, Setting, and Participants: We extracted the data from a case series of 43 hospitalized patients we treated, a public data set of the first 37 cases died of COVID-19 in Wuhan city and 1019 survived patients from six cities in China. We also analyzed the data of 524 patients with SARS, including 139 deaths, from Beijing city in early 2003. Main Outcomes and Measures: Severity and mortality. Results: Older age and high number of comorbidities were associated with higher severity and mortality in patients with both COVID-19 and SARS. The percentages of older age (≥65 years) were much higher in the deceased group than in the survived group in patients with both COVID-19 (83.8 vs. 13.2, P<0.001) and SARS (37.4 vs. 4.9, P<0.001). In the case series, men tend to be more serious than women (P=0.035), although age was comparable between men and women. In the public data set, age was also comparable between men and women in the deceased group or the survived group in patients with COVID-19. Meanwhile, gender distribution was exactly symmetrical in the 1019 survivors of COVID-19. However, the percentage of male were higher in the deceased group than in the survived group (70.3 vs. 50.0, P=0.015). The gender role in mortality was also observed in SARS patients. Survival analysis showed that men (hazard ratio [95% CI] 1.47 [1.05-2.06, P= 0.025) had a significantly higher mortality rate than women in patients with SARS. Conclusions and Relevance: Older age and male gender are risk factors for worse outcome in patients with COVID. While men and women have the same susceptibility to both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, men may be more prone to have higher severity and mortality independent of age and susceptibility.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Public Health
                Front Public Health
                Front. Public Health
                Frontiers in Public Health
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-2565
                29 April 2020
                2020
                : 8
                Affiliations
                1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing, China
                2Department of Internal Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan, China
                3Department of Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing, China
                4Department of Otolaryngology and Head Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing, China
                5Department of Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Zisis Kozlakidis, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), France

                Reviewed by: Javier Carbajo-Lozoya, Technical University of Munich, Germany; Yunchang Shao, China National GeneBank (BGI), China

                *Correspondence: Jin-Kui Yang jkyang@ 123456ccmu.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Infectious Diseases - Surveillance, Prevention and Treatment, a section of the journal Frontiers in Public Health

                Article
                10.3389/fpubh.2020.00152
                7201103
                Copyright © 2020 Jin, Bai, He, Wu, Liu, Han, Liu and Yang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 14, Pages: 6, Words: 3857
                Categories
                Public Health
                Original Research

                sars-cov-2, covid-19, sars, morbidity, mortality, gender, male, female

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