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      The Role of Myeloid-Derived Cells in the Progression of Liver Disease

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          Abstract

          Control of homeostasis and rapid response to tissue damage in the liver is orchestrated by crosstalk between resident and infiltrating inflammatory cells. A crucial role for myeloid cells during hepatic injury and repair has emerged where resident Kupffer cells, circulating monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils control local tissue inflammation and regenerative function to maintain tissue architecture. Studies in humans and rodents have revealed a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells that respond to the local environment by either promoting regeneration or driving the inflammatory processes that can lead to hepatitis, fibrogenesis, and the development of cirrhosis and malignancy. Such plasticity of myeloid cell responses presents unique challenges for therapeutic intervention strategies and a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms is needed. Here we review the role of myeloid cells in the establishment and progression of liver disease and highlight key pathways that have become the focus for current and future therapeutic strategies.

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          Most cited references 258

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          Liver fibrosis.

          Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins including collagen that occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases. Advanced liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension and often requires liver transplantation. Our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis has greatly advanced. Activated hepatic stellate cells, portal fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts of bone marrow origin have been identified as major collagen-producing cells in the injured liver. These cells are activated by fibrogenic cytokines such as TGF-beta1, angiotensin II, and leptin. Reversibility of advanced liver fibrosis in patients has been recently documented, which has stimulated researchers to develop antifibrotic drugs. Emerging antifibrotic therapies are aimed at inhibiting the accumulation of fibrogenic cells and/or preventing the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Although many therapeutic interventions are effective in experimental models of liver fibrosis, their efficacy and safety in humans is unknown. This review summarizes recent progress in the study of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of liver fibrosis and discusses current antifibrotic strategies.
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            Circulating Mitochondrial DAMPs Cause Inflammatory Responses to Injury

            Injury causes a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) clinically much like sepsis 1. Microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activate innate immunocytes through pattern recognition receptors 2. Similarly, cellular injury can release endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that activate innate immunity 3. Mitochondria are evolutionary endosymbionts that were derived from bacteria 4 and so might bear bacterial molecular motifs. We show here that injury releases mitochondrial DAMPs (MTD) into the circulation with functionally important immune consequences. MTD include formyl peptides and mitochondrial DNA. These activate human neutrophils (PMN) through formyl peptide receptor-1 and TLR9 respectively. MTD promote PMN Ca2+ flux and phosphorylation of MAP kinases, thus leading to PMN migration and degranulation in vitro and in vivo. Circulating MTD can elicit neutrophil-mediated organ injury. Cellular disruption by trauma releases mitochondrial DAMPs with evolutionarily conserved similarities to bacterial PAMPs into the circulation. These can then signal through identical innate immune pathways to create a sepsis-like state. The release of such mitochondrial ‘enemies within’ by cellular injury is a key link between trauma, inflammation and SIRS.
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              Differentiation of effector CD4 T cell populations (*).

              CD4 T cells play critical roles in mediating adaptive immunity to a variety of pathogens. They are also involved in autoimmunity, asthma, and allergic responses as well as in tumor immunity. During TCR activation in a particular cytokine milieu, naive CD4 T cells may differentiate into one of several lineages of T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and iTreg, as defined by their pattern of cytokine production and function. In this review, we summarize the discovery, functions, and relationships among Th cells; the cytokine and signaling requirements for their development; the networks of transcription factors involved in their differentiation; the epigenetic regulation of their key cytokines and transcription factors; and human diseases involving defective CD4 T cell differentiation.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Centre for Liver and Gastrointestinal Research, Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Medical School, University of Birmingham , Birmingham, United Kingdom
                2NIHR Birmingham Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham , Birmingham, United Kingdom
                3Medical Department III, University Hospital of Aachen , Aachen, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Rajiv Jalan, University College London, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Cordula M. Stover, University of Leicester, United Kingdom; Juan J. Garcia-Vallejo, VU University Medical Center, Netherlands; Gautam Mehta, University College London, United Kingdom

                *Correspondence: Chris John Weston c.j.weston@ 123456bham.ac.uk

                This article was submitted to Molecular Innate Immunity, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                24 April 2019
                2019
                : 10
                10.3389/fimmu.2019.00893
                6491757
                Copyright © 2019 Weston, Zimmermann and Adams.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 258, Pages: 20, Words: 16689
                Funding
                Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council 10.13039/501100000268
                Award ID: BB/N018869/1
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

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