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# Factors associated with prescription opioid misuse in a cross-sectional cohort of patients with chronic non-cancer pain

Journal of Pain Research

Dove Medical Press

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### Abstract

##### Objective

To examine demographic features, psychosocial characteristics, pain-specific behavioral factors, substance abuse history, sleep, and indicators of overall physical function as predictors of opioid misuse in patients presenting for new patient evaluation at a tertiary pain clinic.

##### Methods

Overall, 625 patients with chronic non-cancer pain prospectively completed the Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry, assessing pain catastrophizing, National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System standardized measures (pain intensity, pain behavior, pain interference, physical function, sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, anger, depression, anxiety, and fatigue), and substance use history. Additional information regarding current opioid prescriptions and opioid misuse was examined through retrospective chart review.

##### Results

In all, 41 (6.6%) patients presented with some indication of prescription opioid misuse. In the final multivariable logistic regression model, those with a history of illicit drug use (odds ratio [OR] 5.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.48–11.98, p<0.0001) and a current opioid prescription (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.62–10.18, p=0.003) were at elevated risk for opioid misuse. Conversely, every 1-h increase in average hours of nightly sleep decreased the risk of opioid misuse by 20% (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66–0.97, p=0.02).

##### Conclusion

These findings indicate the importance of considering substance use history, current opioid prescriptions, and sleep in universal screening of patients with chronic non-cancer pain for opioid misuse. Future work should target longitudinal studies to verify the causal relationships between these variables and subsequent opioid misuse.

### Most cited references27

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### Rates of opioid misuse, abuse, and addiction in chronic pain: a systematic review and data synthesis.

(2015)
Opioid use in chronic pain treatment is complex, as patients may derive both benefit and harm. Identification of individuals currently using opioids in a problematic way is important given the substantial recent increases in prescription rates and consequent increases in morbidity and mortality. The present review provides updated and expanded information regarding rates of problematic opioid use in chronic pain. Because previous reviews have indicated substantial variability in this literature, several steps were taken to enhance precision and utility. First, problematic use was coded using explicitly defined terms, referring to different patterns of use (ie, misuse, abuse, and addiction). Second, average prevalence rates were calculated and weighted by sample size and study quality. Third, the influence of differences in study methodology was examined. In total, data from 38 studies were included. Rates of problematic use were quite broad, ranging from <1% to 81% across studies. Across most calculations, rates of misuse averaged between 21% and 29% (range, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13%-38%). Rates of addiction averaged between 8% and 12% (range, 95% CI: 3%-17%). Abuse was reported in only a single study. Only 1 difference emerged when study methods were examined, where rates of addiction were lower in studies that identified prevalence assessment as a primary, rather than secondary, objective. Although significant variability remains in this literature, this review provides guidance regarding possible average rates of opioid misuse and addiction and also highlights areas in need of further clarification.
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### Risk factors for clinically recognized opioid abuse and dependence among veterans using opioids for chronic non-cancer pain.

(2007)
A central question in prescribing opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) is how to best balance the risk of opioid abuse and dependence with the benefits of pain relief. To achieve this balance, clinicians need an understanding of the risk factors for opioid abuse, an issue that is only partially understood. We conducted a secondary data analysis of regional VA longitudinal administrative data (years 2000-2005) for chronic users of opioids for CNCP (n=15,160) to investigate risk factors for the development of clinically recognized (i.e., diagnosed) opioid abuse or dependence among these individuals. We analyzed four broad groups of possible risk factors: (i) non-opioid substance abuse disorders, (ii) painful physical health disorders, (iii) mental health disorders, and (iv) socio-demographic factors. In adjusted models, a diagnosis of non-opioid substance abuse was the strongest predictor of opioid abuse/dependence (OR=2.34, p<0.001). Mental health disorders were moderately strong predictors (OR=1.46, p=0.005) of opioid abuse/dependence. However, the prevalence of mental health disorders was much higher than the prevalence of non-opioid substance abuse disorders (45.3% vs. 7.6%) among users of opioids for CNCP, suggesting that mental health disorders account for more of the population attributable risk for opioid abuse than does non-opioid substance abuse. Males, younger adults, and individuals with greater days supply of prescription opioids dispensed in 2002 were more likely to develop opioid abuse/dependence. Clinicians need to carefully screen for substance abuse and mental health disorders in candidates for opioid therapy and facilitate appropriate treatment of these disorders.
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### Profit and loss analysis for an intensive care unit (ICU) in Japan: a tool for strategic management

(2006)
Background Accurate cost estimate and a profit and loss analysis are necessary for health care practice. We performed an actual financial analysis for an intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital in Japan, and tried to discuss the health care policy and resource allocation decisions that have an impact on critical intensive care. Methods The costs were estimated by a department level activity based costing method, and the profit and loss analysis was based on a break-even point analysis. The data used included the monthly number of patients, the revenue, and the direct and indirect costs of the ICU in 2003. Results The results of this analysis showed that the total costs of US$2,678,052 of the ICU were mainly incurred due to direct costs of 88.8%. On the other hand, the actual annual total patient days in the ICU were 1,549 which resulted in revenues of US$ 2,295,044. However, it was determined that the ICU required at least 1,986 patient days within one fiscal year based on a break-even point analysis. As a result, an annual deficit of US\$ 383,008 has occurred in the ICU. Conclusion These methods are useful for determining the profits or losses for the ICU practice, and how to evaluate and to improve it. In this study, the results indicate that most ICUs in Japanese hospitals may not be profitable at the present time. As a result, in order to increase the income to make up for this deficit, an increase of 437 patient days in the ICU in one fiscal year is needed, and the number of patients admitted to the ICU should thus be increased without increasing the number of beds or staff members. Increasing the number of patients referred from cooperating hospitals and clinics therefore appears to be the best strategy for achieving these goals.
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### Author and article information

###### Journal
J Pain Res
J Pain Res
Journal of Pain Research
Journal of Pain Research
Dove Medical Press
1178-7090
2017
03 May 2017
: 10
: 979-987
###### Affiliations
[1 ]Division of Pain Medicine
[2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine
[3 ]Stanford Systems Neuroscience and Pain Lab, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
###### Author notes
Correspondence: Jennifer M Hah, Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Stanford University, 1070 Arastradero Road, Suite 200, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA, Tel +1 650 736 9415, Fax +1 650 725 9642, Email jhah@ 123456stanford.edu
###### Article
jpr-10-979
10.2147/JPR.S131979
5422534
© 2017 Hah et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

###### Categories
Original Research

Anesthesiology & Pain management