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      Time-Dependent Changes in the Plasma Concentration of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 after Acute Myocardial Infarction

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          Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 are believed to play a pathophysiologic role in acute myocardial infarction (MI). The time course of their plasma concentrations in correlation with the extent of myocardial damage is unclear. In a prospective study, 20 patients with proven acute MI underwent successful reperfusion within 6 h after the onset of symptoms. The patients were divided into two groups according to the size of their MI, i.e. large or moderate MI. Plasma concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 were determined on admission, and after 24 h, 48 h, 1 week, 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. MMP-2 levels remained unchanged over time in both groups. The plasma concentration of MMP-9 was elevated on admission in patients with large MI versus moderate MI (195 ± 190 versus 78 ± 63 ng/ml, p < 0.01) as determined by left ventriculography, and returned to baseline (18 ± 16 ng/ml) by 1 week after MI. TIMP-1 levels rose slowly in patients with large MI and returned to baseline at 6 months. The ratio of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 was significantly increased on admission in both groups and returned to baseline at 48 h. These data suggest that MMP-9 might play a pathophysiologic role during the early phase of acute MI.

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          Plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 are increased in the coronary circulation in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

          Previous studies on atherectomy specimens from patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) implicated the role of proteolytic enzymes. We examined whether the plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were increased in the coronary circulation in ACS. The plasma levels (nanograms per milliliter) of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in the aorta (Ao) and great cardiac vein (GCV) were measured in 29 patients with ACS (20 with acute myocardial infarction [group 1] and 9 with unstable angina [group 2]), 17 with stable effort angina (group 3), and 20 control subjects (group 4). Group 1 patients had occlusion in the left anterior descending artery (LAD), and groups 2 and 3 patients had culprit lesion in the LAD. In group 1 blood samples were obtained at the time of direct coronary angioplasty done within 12 hours after the onset. The Ao level of either MMP-9 or TIMP-1 did not differ among the 4 groups. The GCV-Ao differences in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were both significantly increased in groups 1 and 2 compared with those in group 4. Neither of them was different between groups 3 and 4. Neither the GCV-Ao difference in MMP-9 or TIMP-1 level was correlated with the maximal creatine kinase level in group 1. Increased plasma levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were detected in the coronary circulation in ACS patients, suggesting a process of active plaque rupture in ACS.
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            Evolution of matrix metalloprotease and tissue inhibitor expression during heart failure progression in the infarcted rat.

            Characterize the timecourse of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -11, -12, -13, and -14) and endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1, -2, -3, and -4) upregulation during left ventricular (LV) remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The descending left coronary artery of male rats (Rattus norvegicus) was ligated to produce a MI. LV function and dilation were assessed from 1 day to 16 weeks post-MI. Protein and mRNA extraction was done on LV samples containing scar and myocardium together. Gelatinase activity was measured by zymography. Westerns were run on the MMPs known to cleave fibrillar collagen in the rat (MMP-8, -13, and -14) as well as TIMP-1, -2, and -4. Average infarct size was 38.6+/-1.1%, and produced LV dysfunction and progressive LV dilation. Thoracic ascites, a marker of congestive heart failure (HF), was not present until 12 weeks post-MI. Upregulation of MMP-2, -8, -9, -13, and -14 and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was detected at different timepoints during HF progression. Increased MMP protein levels occurred sometimes without a corresponding elevation in mRNA levels, and increased TIMP mRNA levels without increased protein levels. MMP-13 active form was elevated during the first 2 weeks post-MI while TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein levels were not significantly elevated until 2 weeks post-MI. MMP-8 and MMP-14 protein levels increased later during heart failure progression. MMP/TIMP upregulation evolves over time following infarction in the rat LV. Some MMPs were significantly elevated during the first week post-MI (MMP-13, -2, and -9) and another was not until 16 weeks post-MI (MMP-14). The dissociation between LV MMP/TIMP mRNA and protein levels shows that post-translation processing occurs in the rat heart.
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              Time course of cardiac structural, functional and electrical changes in asymptomatic patients after myocardial infarction: their inter-relation and prognostic impact.

              We prospectively studied the relationship between left ventricular (LV) dilation, dysfunction, electrical instability and death in patients after a first myocardial infarction (MI) without symptoms of heart failure and ischemia. Mechanisms linking LV dysfunction and sudden death in patients after MI remained controversial. Left ventricular volumes, hemodynamics, electrocardiogram and 24-h Holter recordings were sequentially obtained between two days and seven years after MI. Left ventricular catheterization and coronary angiography were performed, and revascularization was performed if appropriate. Death occurred in 16 (12%) of the 134 patients included; it was of cardiac origin in 14 (88%) and sudden in origin in 12 (75%) patients. Of 37 (28%) patients with LV dilation, 12 died (32%); four patients (5.8%) died in the group without dilation. Left ventricular dilation was closely related to signs of electrical instability, as indicated by a significant correlation between end-diastolic LV volume index, Lown score (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001) and QTc prolongation (r = 0.998, p < 0.01), respectively. Patients with progressive remodeling are at increased risk of sudden death in chronic MI. Cardiac electrical instability is closely related to progressive LV dilation. Parameters of electrical instability and remodeling are predictors of sudden death. The findings suggest that remodeling might serve as a link between dysfunction, electrical instability of the heart and sudden death after MI.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                June 2003
                27 June 2003
                : 99
                : 3
                : 140-144
                1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology, Angiology and Pulmonology), University Hospital of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany
                70670 Cardiology 2003;99:140–144
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 21, Pages: 5
                Coronary Care


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