High-density genetic maps based on SNPs are essential for fine mapping loci controlling specific traits for fish species. Using restriction-site associated DNA tag sequencing (RAD-Seq) technology, we identified 42,784 SNPs evenly distributed across the Megalobrama amblycephala genome. Based on 2 parents and 187 intra-specific hybridization progenies, a total of 14,648 high-confidence SNPs were assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs) of maternal and paternal map. The total length of the integrated map was 3,258.38 cM with an average distance of 0.57 cM among 5676 effective loci, thereby representing the first high-density genetic map reported for M. amblycephala. A total of eight positive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in QTL analysis. Of that, five QTL explained ≥35% of phenotypic variation for growth traits and three QTL explained ≥16% phenotypic variation for gonad related traits. A total of 176 mapped markers had significant hits in the zebrafish genome and almost all of the 24 putative-chromosomes of M. amblycephala were in relatively conserved synteny with chromosomes of zebrafish. Almost all M. amblycephala and zebrafish chromosomes had a 1:1 correspondence except for putative-chromosome 4, which mapped to two chromosomes of zebrafish caused by the difference in chromosome numbers between two species.