Piper L. is the largest genus of Piperaceae with about 2,000 species worldwide. Brazil is home to 466 of these species. They are found mainly in the Atlantic and Amazonian forests. This is the first record of Piper robustipedunculum Yunck in the state of Pernambuco, a species which was previously considered restricted to the state of Bahia. We consulted the herbaria CEN, HAMAB, HEPH, IBGE, IPA, MAC, R, RB, RFFP, UB, UFP, UFMT, UPCB and the virtual speciesLink and Reflora databases. Additionally, we elaborated a description and a distribution map to the species.