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      Microbial Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Among Infants and Children Admitted to the Pediatric Hospital, Ain Shams University

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          While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients.


          To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children.


          Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study. Etiological agents were identified using conventional bacteriological identification methods and IgM antibodies detection against common atypical respiratory bacteria and viruses.


          An etiology was identified in 59 patients (65.5%). Bacterial pathogens were detected in 43 (47.8%) of the cases while viral pathogens were detected in 23 (25.5%). Coinfection with more than one etiologic agent was evident in seven patients (7.8%). The most common typical bacterial cause of pneumonia was Staphylococcus aureus ( n = 12, 13.3%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae ( n = 7, 7.8%, each). The commonest atypical bacterium was Mycoplasma pneumoniae ( n = 10, 11.1%), whereas the commonest viral etiology was influenza viruses ( n = 11, 12.2%).


          Although we could not determine the causative agent in some studied cases, this study provides preliminary data regarding the spectrum and frequency of microorganisms causing CAP in Egyptian infants and preschool children.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Regional alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Great Britain: novel insights using retail sales data

          Background Regional differences in population levels of alcohol-related harm exist across Great Britain, but these are not entirely consistent with differences in population levels of alcohol consumption. This incongruence may be due to the use of self-report surveys to estimate consumption. Survey data are subject to various biases and typically produce consumption estimates much lower than those based on objective alcohol sales data. However, sales data have never been used to estimate regional consumption within Great Britain (GB). This ecological study uses alcohol retail sales data to provide novel insights into regional alcohol consumption in GB, and to explore the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality. Methods Alcohol sales estimates derived from electronic sales, delivery records and retail outlet sampling were obtained. The volume of pure alcohol sold was used to estimate per adult consumption, by market sector and drink type, across eleven GB regions in 2010–11. Alcohol-related mortality rates were calculated for the same regions and a cross-sectional correlation analysis between consumption and mortality was performed. Results Per adult consumption in northern England was above the GB average and characterised by high beer sales. A high level of consumption in South West England was driven by on-trade sales of cider and spirits and off-trade wine sales. Scottish regions had substantially higher spirits sales than elsewhere in GB, particularly through the off-trade. London had the lowest per adult consumption, attributable to lower off-trade sales across most drink types. Alcohol-related mortality was generally higher in regions with higher per adult consumption. The relationship was weakened by the South West and Central Scotland regions, which had the highest consumption levels, but discordantly low and very high alcohol-related mortality rates, respectively. Conclusions This study provides support for the ecological relationship between alcohol-related mortality and alcohol consumption. The synthesis of knowledge from a combination of sales, survey and mortality data, as well as primary research studies, is key to ensuring that regional alcohol consumption, and its relationship with alcohol-related harms, is better understood.
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            Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in 254 hospitalized children.

            Childhood community-acquired pneumonia is a common illness, but there have been relatively few comprehensive studies of the viral and bacterial etiology in developed countries. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children by several laboratory methods. In a 3-year prospective study a nasopharyngeal aspirate for viral studies and acute and convalescent serum samples for viral and bacterial serology were taken from 254 children with symptoms of acute infection and infiltrates compatible with pneumonia in the chest radiograph. The role of 17 microbes was investigated. A potential causative agent was detected in 215 (85%) of the 254 patients. Sixty-two percent of the patients had viral infection, 53% had bacterial infection and 30% had evidence of concomitant viral-bacterial infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae (37%), respiratory syncytial virus (29%) and rhinovirus (24%) were the most common agents associated with community-acquired pneumonia. Only one patient had a positive blood culture (S. pneumoniae) of 125 cultured. A dual viral infection was detected in 35 patients, and a dual bacterial infection was detected in 19 patients. The possible causative agent of childhood community-acquired pneumonia can be detected in most cases. Further studies are warranted to determine what etiologic investigations would aid in the management of pneumonia. With effective immunization for S. pneumoniae and respiratory syncytial virus infections, more than one-half of the pneumonia cases in this study could have been prevented.
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              British Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in children: update 2011.

               M. Harris,  J. Clark,  N Coote (2011)
              The British Thoracic Society first published management guidelines for community acquired pneumonia in children in 2002 and covered available evidence to early 2000. These updated guidelines represent a review of new evidence since then and consensus clinical opinion where evidence was not found. This document incorporates material from the 2002 guidelines and supersedes the previous guideline document.

                Author and article information

                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                05 August 2016
                29 September 2016
                : 6
                : 3
                : 206-214
                [1 ] Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University , Cairo, Egypt
                [2 ] Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University , Cairo, Egypt
                Author notes
                * Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; +201222475354; walaa_khater@ , drwalaakhater@

                Conflict of interest

                The authors declare no conflict of interest.

                © The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 43, Pages: 9
                Funding sources The authors have no funding to report.
                Original Article


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