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      Spatial Modulation for Molecular Communication

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          Abstract

          In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient spatial modulation based molecular communication (SM-MC) scheme, in which a transmitted symbol is composed of two parts, i.e., a space derived symbol and a concentration derived symbol. The space symbol is transmitted by embedding the information into the index of a single activated transmitter nanomachine. The concentration symbol is drawn according to the conventional concentration shift keying (CSK) constellation. Befitting from a single active transmitter during each symbol transmission period, SM-MC can avoid the inter-link interference problem existing in the current multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) MC schemes, which hence enables low-complexity symbol detection and performance improvement. Specifically, in our low-complexity scheme, the space symbol is first detected by energy comparison, and then the concentration symbol is detected by the equal gain combining assisted CSK demodulation. In this paper, we analyze the symbol error rate (SER) of the SM-MC and its special case, namely the space shift keying based MC (SSK-MC), where only space symbol is transmitted and no CSK modulation is invoked. Finally, the analytical results are validated by computer simulations, and our studies demonstrate that both the SM-MC and SSK-MC are capable of achieving better SER performance than the conventional MIMO-MC and single-input single-output MC (SISO-MC) when the same symbol rate is assumed.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Improving Receiver Performance of Diffusive Molecular Communication with Enzymes

          This paper studies the mitigation of intersymbol interference in a diffusive molecular communication system using enzymes that freely diffuse in the propagation environment. The enzymes form reaction intermediates with information molecules and then degrade them so that they cannot interfere with future transmissions. A lower bound expression on the expected number of molecules measured at the receiver is derived. A simple binary receiver detection scheme is proposed where the number of observed molecules is sampled at the time when the maximum number of molecules is expected. Insight is also provided into the selection of an appropriate bit interval. The expected bit error probability is derived as a function of the current and all previously transmitted bits. Simulation results show the accuracy of the bit error probability expression and the improvement in communication performance by having active enzymes present.
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            Three-Dimensional Channel Characteristics for Molecular Communications With an Absorbing Receiver

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              Receiver Design for Molecular Communication

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                04 July 2018
                Article
                1807.01468

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                cs.ET

                General computer science

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