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      Anthropogenically induced adaptation to invade (AIAI): contemporary adaptation to human-altered habitats within the native range can promote invasions


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          Adaptive evolution is currently accepted as playing a significant role in biological invasions. Adaptations relevant to invasions are typically thought to occur either recently within the introduced range, as an evolutionary response to novel selection regimes, or within the native range, because of long-term adaptation to the local environment. We propose that recent adaptation within the native range, in particular adaptations to human-altered habitat, could also contribute to the evolution of invasive populations. Populations adapted to human-altered habitats in the native range are likely to increase in abundance within areas frequented by humans and associated with human transport mechanisms, thus enhancing the likelihood of transport to a novel range. Given that habitats are altered by humans in similar ways worldwide, as evidenced by global environmental homogenization, propagules from populations adapted to human-altered habitats in the native range should perform well within similarly human-altered habitats in the novel range. We label this scenario ‘Anthropogenically Induced Adaptation to Invade’. We illustrate how it differs from other evolutionary processes that may occur during invasions, and how it can help explain accelerating rates of invasions.

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          Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties. For terrestrial ecosystems, land-use change probably will have the largest effect, followed by climate change, nitrogen deposition, biotic exchange, and elevated carbon dioxide concentration. For freshwater ecosystems, biotic exchange is much more important. Mediterranean climate and grassland ecosystems likely will experience the greatest proportional change in biodiversity because of the substantial influence of all drivers of biodiversity change. Northern temperate ecosystems are estimated to experience the least biodiversity change because major land-use change has already occurred. Plausible changes in biodiversity in other biomes depend on interactions among the causes of biodiversity change. These interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in projections of future biodiversity change.
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              Evolutionary genetics of invasive species


                Author and article information

                Evol Appl
                Evol Appl
                Evolutionary Applications
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
                January 2012
                02 November 2011
                : 5
                : 1
                : 89-101
                [1 ]simpleDepartment of Bioagricultural Science and Pest Management, Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University Ft Collins, CO, USA
                [2 ]simpleUMR CBGP (INRA-IRD-CIRAD, Montpellier SupAgro), Campus International de Baillarguet Montferrier/Lez Cedex, France
                [3 ]simpleCIRAD, UMR BGPI, Campus International de Baillarguet Montpellier Cedex 5, France
                [4 ]simpleDépartement de Biologie, Université Laval Quebec, QC, Canada
                [5 ]simpleLaboratoire Evolution, Génomes, Spéciation UMR-CNRS 9034, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
                [6 ]simpleCenter of Rapid Evolution (CORE), University of Wisconsin Madison, WI, USA
                Author notes
                Ruth A. Hufbauer, Department of Bioagricultural Science and Pest Management, Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO 80523, USA. Tel.: +970-491-6945; fax: +970-491-3862; e-mail: ruth.hufbauer@ 123456colostate.edu
                © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
                : 21 July 2011
                : 27 July 2011

                Evolutionary Biology
                evolutionary theory,invasive species,adaptation,contemporary evolution,habitat degradation,agriculture


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