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      Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: enhancing parent-child relationships Translated title: Un programa para la mejora de las relaciones padres-hijos: la Terapia de Interacción Padres-Hijos

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          Abstract

          Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships), there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

          Translated abstract

          Los problemas de comportamiento infantil disruptivo son frecuentes para muchos padres y pueden estar asociados con graves conductas delictivas o agresivas/violentas en la adolescencia o en la edad adulta. Las intervenciones con los padres que tratan este tipo de problemas de comportamiento disruptivo han ganado aceptación. Unos de estos programas de intervención con los padres es la Terapia de Interacción Padres-Hijos (PCIT). El PCIT es un programa, basado en las teorías del apego y del aprendizaje social, diseñado para niños y niñas de entre 2 y 7 años de edad que presenten problemas de conducta disruptiva o externalizados, y que tiene una duración de entre 14 y 20 semanas. En este artículo se presentará una breve revisión de la historia del PCIT, una descripción de sus componentes básicos, y una visión general de los avances recientes que subrayan las posibilidades del PCIT para mejorar las relaciones padres-hijos en familias maltratantes, para tratar a niños y niñas víctimas de situaciones traumáticas y para mejorar la resiliencia en niños y niñas de corta edad. En relación con los tres objetivos básicos del PCIT (es decir, reducción de los problemas de conducta, mejora de las habilidades parentales y mejora de la calidad de las relaciones entre padres e hijos), hay una abundancia de investigaciones que demuestran robustos efectos del tratamiento y, por tanto, su validez para ser aplicado de manera generalizada. La investigación más reciente ha demostrado también el valor de PCIT en la reducción de síntomas traumáticos en niños y niñas de corta edad.

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          Most cited references70

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          Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: a six-site, cross-national study.

          This study used data from 6 sites and 3 countries to examine the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood and to analyze its linkage to violent and nonviolent offending outcomes in adolescence. The results indicate that among boys there is continuity in problem behavior from childhood to adolescence and that such continuity is especially acute when early problem behavior takes the form of physical aggression. Chronic physical aggression during the elementary school years specifically increases the risk for continued physical violence as well as other nonviolent forms of delinquency during adolescence. However, this conclusion is reserved primarily for boys, because the results indicate no clear linkage between childhood physical aggression and adolescent offending among female samples despite notable similarities across male and female samples in the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood.
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            Maternal depression and parenting behavior: a meta-analytic review.

            The results of 46 observational studies were analyzed to assess the strength of the association between depression and parenting behavior and to identify variables that moderated the effects. The association between depression and parenting was manifest most strongly for negative maternal behavior and was evident to a somewhat lesser degree in disengagement from the child. The association between depression and positive maternal behavior was relatively weak, albeit significant. Effects for negative maternal behavior were moderated by timing of the depression: Current depression was associated with the largest effects. However, residual effects of prior depression were apparent for all behaviors. Socioeconomic status, child age, and methodological variables moderated the effects for positive behavior: Effects were strongest for studies of disadvantaged women and mothers of infants. Studies using diagnostic interviews and self-report measures yielded similar effects, suggesting that deficits are not specific to depressive disorder. Research is needed to identify factors that affect the magnitude of parenting deficits among women who are experiencing depression and other psychological difficulties.
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              Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior.

              D Baumrind (1967)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                inter
                Psychosocial Intervention
                Psychosocial Intervention
                Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid (Madrid )
                1132-0559
                August 2012
                : 21
                : 2
                : 145-156
                Affiliations
                [1 ] University of California at Davis Children's Hospital USA
                Article
                S1132-05592012000200004
                10.5093/in2012a16
                1b055acc-ce3f-405d-b11f-9715373d5c73

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Categories
                PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                behavior problems,Parent-Child Interaction Therapy,parenting skills,treatment,Palabras clave,habilidades parentales,problemas de conducta,Terapia de Interacción Padres-Hijos,tratamiento

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