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      Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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          Insufficient systematic reviews were conducted in the previous meta-analyses about the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with CKD.


          A systematic review of studies that evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with CKD compared to a control group was performed. Only studies with adult patients were included, and studies with renal transplant recipients or diabetic nephropathy patients were excluded. Random-effects model meta-analyses with sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were conducted to confirm the robustness of the main result. A meta-regression analysis was conducted to explore the influence of potential heterogeneity on the outcomes. The methodological quality of the included publications was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Nonrandomized Studies. Publication bias was also assessed.


          In total, 47 studies were identified and analyzed. The total prevalence of H. pylori infection was 48.2% (1,968/4,084) in patients with CKD and 59.3% (4,097/6,908) in the control group. Pooled analysis showed a significantly lower prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with CKD (vs control group: odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.79). Sensitivity analyses revealed consistent results, and meta-regression analysis showed no significant confounders. No publication bias was detected.


          The results of this study suggest a lower prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with CKD.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Schistosomes, liver flukes and Helicobacter pylori. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, 7-14 June 1994.

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            Testing a tool for assessing the risk of bias for nonrandomized studies showed moderate reliability and promising validity.

            To develop and validate a new risk-of-bias tool for nonrandomized studies (NRSs). We developed the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS). A validation process with 39 NRSs examined the reliability (interrater agreement), validity (the degree of correlation between the overall assessments of RoBANS and Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies [MINORS], obtained by plotting the overall risk of bias relative to effect size and funding source), face validity with eight experts, and completion time for the RoBANS approach. RoBANS contains six domains: the selection of participants, confounding variables, the measurement of exposure, the blinding of the outcome assessments, incomplete outcome data, and selective outcome reporting. The interrater agreement of the RoBANS tool except the measurement of exposure and selective outcome reporting domains ranged from fair to substantial. There was a moderate correlation between the overall risks of bias determined using RoBANS and MINORS. The observed differences in effect sizes and funding sources among the assessed studies were not correlated with the overall risk of bias in these studies. The mean time required to complete RoBANS was approximately 10 min. The external experts who were interviewed evaluated RoBANS as a "fair" assessment tool. RoBANS shows moderate reliability, promising feasibility, and validity. The further refinement of this tool and larger validation studies are required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Effect of interleukin 1 polymorphisms on gastric mucosal interleukin 1beta production in Helicobacter pylori infection.

              Although epidemiological studies suggest that interleukin (IL)-1 genetic polymorphisms are involved in Helicobacter pylori-related gastric carcinogenesis, the data are conflicting regarding the effects of these polymorphisms on IL-1beta production. IL-1B-511 polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and IL-1RN variable number of tandem repeats was determined by PCR. Mucosal IL-1beta levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine which factors influence mucosal IL-1beta levels, gastric inflammation, and atrophy, multiple regression analyses were performed. We studied 117 H. pylori-infected Japanese patients. Carriers of the IL-1B-511T/T genotype or IL-1RN*2 allele had higher mucosal IL-1beta levels than noncarriers (partial regression coefficient [PRC] +/- SE), TT versus CC: 37.6 +/- 6 [antrum] and 32.1 +/- 6 [corpus] pg/mg protein (P < 0.001 for each), *1/*2 versus *1/*1: 24 +/- 8 [antrum] (P <0.01) and 36.5 +/- 7 [corpus] (P <0.001). Simultaneous carriers of IL-1B-511T/T genotype and IL-1RN*2 allele had the highest IL-1beta levels (82.9 +/- 12 [antrum] and 87.2 +/- 11 [corpus]) and showed a synergistic effect between 2 loci. The *1/*2 carriers were closely related to atrophy (PRC +/- SE; 0.87 +/- 0.4 [antrum] and 0.93 +/- 0.4 [corpus], P < 0.05), whereas being a carrier of the -511T/T genotype was related to severe gastric inflammation. IL-1 genetic polymorphisms influenced H. pylori-related gastric mucosal IL-1beta levels and were related to gastric inflammation and atrophy, factors thought to be important in gastric carcinogenesis.

                Author and article information

                Gut Liver
                Gut Liver
                Gut and Liver
                Editorial Office of Gut and Liver
                November 2019
                27 May 2019
                : 13
                : 6
                : 628-641
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea
                [2 ]Institute of New Frontier Research, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Chang Seok Bang, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, 77 Sakju-ro, Chuncheon 24253, Korea, Tel: +82-33-240-5821, Fax: +82-33-241-8064, E-mail: csbang@
                Copyright © 2019 by The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology

                chronic kidney disease, meta-analysis, helicobacter pylori


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