To assess the availability and utilization of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) facilities in Afghanistan, as defined by UN indicators. In a cross-sectional study of 78 first-line referral facilities located in secure areas of Afghanistan, EmONC service delivery was evaluated by using Averting Maternal Deaths and Disabilities (AMDD) Program assessment tools. Forty-two percent of peripheral facilities did not perform all 9 signal functions required of comprehensive EmONC facilities. The study facilities delivered 17% of all neonates expected in their target populations and treated 20% of women expected to experience direct complications. The population-based rate of cesarean delivery was 1%. Most maternal deaths (96%) were due to direct causes. The direct and indirect obstetric case fatality rates were 0.8% and 0.2%, respectively. Notable progress has been made in Afghanistan over the past 8 years in improving the quality, coverage, and utilization of EmONC services, but gaps remain. Re-examination of the criteria for selecting and positioning EmONC facilities is recommended, as is the provision of high-quality, essential maternal and neonatal health services at all levels of the healthcare system, linked by appropriate communication and functional referral systems. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.