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      Hyperoxia in intensive care, emergency, and peri-operative medicine: Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde? A 2015 update

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          Abstract

          This review summarizes the (patho)-physiological effects of ventilation with high FiO 2 (0.8–1.0), with a special focus on the most recent clinical evidence on its use for the management of circulatory shock and during medical emergencies. Hyperoxia is a cornerstone of the acute management of circulatory shock, a concept which is based on compelling experimental evidence that compensating the imbalance between O 2 supply and requirements (i.e., the oxygen dept) is crucial for survival, at least after trauma. On the other hand, “oxygen toxicity” due to the increased formation of reactive oxygen species limits its use, because it may cause serious deleterious side effects, especially in conditions of ischemia/reperfusion. While these effects are particularly pronounced during long-term administration, i.e., beyond 12–24 h, several retrospective studies suggest that even hyperoxemia of shorter duration is also associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In fact, albeit the clinical evidence from prospective studies is surprisingly scarce, a recent meta-analysis suggests that hyperoxia is associated with increased mortality at least in patients after cardiac arrest, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Most of these data, however, originate from heterogenous, observational studies with inconsistent results, and therefore, there is a need for the results from the large scale, randomized, controlled clinical trials on the use of hyperoxia, which can be anticipated within the next 2–3 years. Consequently, until then, “conservative” O 2 therapy, i.e., targeting an arterial hemoglobin O 2 saturation of 88–95 % as suggested by the guidelines of the ARDS Network and the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, represents the treatment of choice to avoid exposure to both hypoxemia and excess hyperoxemia.

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          Most cited references135

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          Association between arterial hyperoxia following resuscitation from cardiac arrest and in-hospital mortality.

          Laboratory investigations suggest that exposure to hyperoxia after resuscitation from cardiac arrest may worsen anoxic brain injury; however, clinical data are lacking. To test the hypothesis that postresuscitation hyperoxia is associated with increased mortality. Multicenter cohort study using the Project IMPACT critical care database of intensive care units (ICUs) at 120 US hospitals between 2001 and 2005. Patient inclusion criteria were age older than 17 years, nontraumatic cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation within 24 hours prior to ICU arrival, and arterial blood gas analysis performed within 24 hours following ICU arrival. Patients were divided into 3 groups defined a priori based on PaO(2) on the first arterial blood gas values obtained in the ICU. Hyperoxia was defined as PaO(2) of 300 mm Hg or greater; hypoxia, PaO(2) of less than 60 mm Hg (or ratio of PaO(2) to fraction of inspired oxygen <300); and normoxia, not classified as hyperoxia or hypoxia. In-hospital mortality. Of 6326 patients, 1156 had hyperoxia (18%), 3999 had hypoxia (63%), and 1171 had normoxia (19%). The hyperoxia group had significantly higher in-hospital mortality (732/1156 [63%; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 60%-66%]) compared with the normoxia group (532/1171 [45%; 95% CI, 43%-48%]; proportion difference, 18% [95% CI, 14%-22%]) and the hypoxia group (2297/3999 [57%; 95% CI, 56%-59%]; proportion difference, 6% [95% CI, 3%-9%]). In a model controlling for potential confounders (eg, age, preadmission functional status, comorbid conditions, vital signs, and other physiological indices), hyperoxia exposure had an odds ratio for death of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.5-2.2). Among patients admitted to the ICU following resuscitation from cardiac arrest, arterial hyperoxia was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality compared with either hypoxia or normoxia.
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            Hyperbaric oxygen for acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

            Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment plus two sessions of exposure to normobaric room air. Oxygen treatments were administered from a high-flow reservoir through a face mask that prevented rebreathing or by endotracheal tube. Neuropsychological tests were administered immediately after chamber sessions 1 and 3, and 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after enrollment. The primary outcome was cognitive sequelae six weeks after carbon monoxide poisoning. The trial was stopped after the third of four scheduled interim analyses, at which point there were 76 patients in each group. Cognitive sequelae at six weeks were less frequent in the hyperbaric-oxygen group (19 of 76 [25.0 percent]) than in the normobaric-oxygen group (35 of 76 [46.1 percent], P=0.007), even after adjustment for cerebellar dysfunction and for stratification variables (adjusted odds ratio, 0.45 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.22 to 0.92]; P=0.03). The presence of cerebellar dysfunction before treatment was associated with the occurrence of cognitive sequelae (odds ratio, 5.71 [95 percent confidence interval, 1.69 to 19.31]; P=0.005) and was more frequent in the normobaric-oxygen group (15 percent vs. 4 percent, P=0.03). Cognitive sequelae were less frequent in the hyperbaric-oxygen group at 12 months, according to the intention-to-treat analysis (P=0.04). Three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments within a 24-hour period appeared to reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae 6 weeks and 12 months after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Hyperoxic acute lung injury.

              Prolonged breathing of very high F(IO(2)) (F(IO(2)) ≥ 0.9) uniformly causes severe hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) and, without a reduction of F(IO(2)), is usually fatal. The severity of HALI is directly proportional to P(O(2)) (particularly above 450 mm Hg, or an F(IO(2)) of 0.6) and exposure duration. Hyperoxia produces extraordinary amounts of reactive O(2) species that overwhelms natural anti-oxidant defenses and destroys cellular structures through several pathways. Genetic predisposition has been shown to play an important role in HALI among animals, and some genetics-based epidemiologic research suggests that this may be true for humans as well. Clinically, the risk of HALI likely occurs when F(IO(2)) exceeds 0.7, and may become problematic when F(IO(2)) exceeds 0.8 for an extended period of time. Both high-stretch mechanical ventilation and hyperoxia potentiate lung injury and may promote pulmonary infection. During the 1960s, confusion regarding the incidence and relevance of HALI largely reflected such issues as the primitive control of F(IO(2)), the absence of PEEP, and the fact that at the time both ALI and ventilator-induced lung injury were unknown. The advent of PEEP and precise control over F(IO(2)), as well as lung-protective ventilation, and other adjunctive therapies for severe hypoxemia, has greatly reduced the risk of HALI for the vast majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the 21st century. However, a subset of patients with very severe ARDS requiring hyperoxic therapy is at substantial risk for developing HALI, therefore justifying the use of such adjunctive therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                sebastian.hafner@gmx.de
                francois.beloncle@chu-angers.fr
                a.koch@iem.uni-kiel.de
                49 731 500 60214 , peter.radermacher@uni-ulm.de
                piasfar@chu-angers.fr
                Journal
                Ann Intensive Care
                Ann Intensive Care
                Annals of Intensive Care
                Springer Paris (Paris )
                2110-5820
                19 November 2015
                19 November 2015
                2015
                : 5
                : 42
                Affiliations
                [ ]Institut für Anästhesiologische Pathophysiologie und Verfahrensentwicklung, Universitätsklinikum Ulm, Helmholtzstrasse 8-1, 89081 Ulm, Germany
                [ ]Klinik für Anästhesiologie, Universitätsklinikum Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, 89081 Ulm, Germany
                [ ]Département de Réanimation Médicale et de Médecine Hyperbare, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 4 rue Larrey, Cedex 9, 49933 Angers, France
                [ ]Laboratoire de Biologie Neurovasculaire et Mitochondriale Intégrée, CNRS UMR 6214-INSERM U1083, Université Angers, PRES L’UNAM, Nantes, France
                [ ]Sektion Maritime Medizin, Institut für Experimentelle Medizin, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, 24118 Kiel, Germany
                [ ]Schifffahrtmedizinisches Institut der Marine, 24119 Kronshagen, Germany
                Article
                84
                10.1186/s13613-015-0084-6
                4653126
                26585328
                1b169005-e47c-480b-b400-6f3da466039a
                © Hafner et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                History
                : 4 August 2015
                : 2 November 2015
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                Emergency medicine & Trauma
                Emergency medicine & Trauma

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