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      Amniotic fluid cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-8) and the risk for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

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          Most cited references 17

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          A case-control study of chorioamnionic infection and histologic chorioamnionitis in prematurity.

          To study the role of infection in prematurity, we studied the demographic and obstetrical characteristics, chorioamnionic cultures, and placental histologic features of women who delivered prematurely and compared these findings with those in women who delivered at term. Microorganisms were isolated from the area between the chorion and the amnion (chorioamnion) in 23 of 38 placentas (61 percent) from women with preterm labor who delivered before 37 weeks' gestation and in 12 (21 percent) of 56 placentas from women without preterm labor who delivered at term (odds ratio, 5.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 15.6). The most frequent isolates from the placentas of those whose infants were delivered prematurely were Ureaplasma urealyticum (47 percent) and Gardnerella vaginalis (26 percent). The recovery of any organism from the chorioamnion was strongly associated with histologic chorioamnionitis (odds ratio, 7.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.7 to 19.5) and with bacterial vaginosis (odds ratio, 3.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 6.6). When multiple logistic regression was used to control for demographic and obstetrical variables, premature delivery was still related to the recovery of organisms from the chorioamnion (odds ratio, 3.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 9.9) and with chorioamnionitis (odds ratio, 5.0; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 15.3). The proportion of placentas with evidence of infection was highest among those who delivered at the lowest gestational age. We conclude that infection of the chorioamnion is strongly related to histologic chorioamnionitis and may be a cause of premature birth.
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            A comparative study of the diagnostic performance of amniotic fluid glucose, white blood cell count, interleukin-6, and gram stain in the detection of microbial invasion in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes.

            Our aim was to compare the value of amniotic fluid tests for the detection of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and in the prediction of the amniocentesis-to-delivery interval and neonatal complications in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes. Amniotic fluid was obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis from 110 consecutive patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes. Fluid was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as mycoplasmas. Amniotic fluid analysis included a Gram stain examination, white blood cell count, and glucose and interleukin-6 determinations. Logistic regression and survival techniques (proportional hazards model) were used for statistical analysis. (1) The prevalence of positive amniotic fluid cultures in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes was 38% (42/110); (2) patients with microbial invasion had a shorter amniocentesis-to-delivery interval and a higher neonatal complication rate than patients with negative cultures; (3) the most sensitive test for the detection of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity was amniotic fluid interleukin-6 determinations (cutoff 7.9 ng/ml) (sensitivity: for IL-6 80.9%; for white blood cell count 57.1%; for glucose 57.1%; for Gram stain 23.8%; p < 0.05 for all comparisons); (4) the most specific test for the detection of microbial invasion was the Gram stain of amniotic fluid (specificity: for Gram stain 98.5%; for white blood cell count 77.9%; for interleukin-6 75%; for glucose 73.5%; p < 0.01 for all); (5) of all amniotic fluid tests, interleukin-6 determination was the only test that had significant clinical value in the prediction of the amniocentesis-to-delivery interval and neonatal complications. Interleukin-6 concentrations in amniotic fluid are a better predictor of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, amniocentesis-to-delivery interval and neonatal complications than the amniotic fluid Gram stain, glucose, or white blood cell count in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes.
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              The association of occult amniotic fluid infection with gestational age and neonatal outcome among women in preterm labor.

              To evaluate the relationships between gestational age, neonatal outcome, and amniotic fluid (AF) bacteria, we obtained AF from women with intact membranes in idiopathic preterm labor. Positive cultures were obtained from 20 (19%) of 105 women. The frequency of positive cultures was inversely related to gestational age: 23-26 weeks, nine of 20; 27-30 weeks, four of 24; and 31-34 weeks, seven of 61 (chi2 for trend, P less than .001). Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides ureolyticus, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were the most common isolates. Facultative and anaerobic bacteria were more commonly isolated from women at less than 30 weeks' gestation, and Ureaplasma urealyticum was commonly isolated at greater than 30 weeks' gestation. Forty percent of the patients identified as having positive AF facultative and anaerobic cultures by the research laboratory had negative cultures in the clinical laboratory. Clinical characteristics and maternal white blood cell count and differential did not differ between women with and without positive cultures. Elevated C-reactive protein levels and a positive AF Gram stain were the two most sensitive and specific methods to predict positive AF cultures. Women with positive cultures delivered a median of 1.0 day after enrollment, compared with 28.5 days for women with negative cultures. The median gestational age at delivery for women with positive cultures was 27.5 weeks, and the median birth weight was 866 g. Positive AF cultures were associated with respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and neonatal death. If occult AF infection among women in preterm labor is a treatable cause of preterm birth, then treatment could markedly reduce both perinatal morbidity and mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
                American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
                Elsevier BV
                00029378
                October 1997
                October 1997
                : 177
                : 4
                : 825-830
                Article
                10.1016/S0002-9378(97)70276-X
                © 1997

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