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Acid Stress Response Mechanisms of Group B Streptococci

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      Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the United States and Europe. It is part of the vaginal microbiota in up to 30% of pregnant women and can be passed on to the newborn through perinatal transmission. GBS has the ability to survive in multiple different host niches. The pathophysiology of this bacterium reveals an outstanding ability to withstand varying pH fluctuations of the surrounding environments inside the human host. GBS host pathogen interations include colonization of the acidic vaginal mucosa, invasion of the neutral human blood or amniotic fluid, breaching of the blood brain barrier as well as survival within the acidic phagolysosomal compartment of macrophages. However, investigations on GBS responses to acid stress are limited. Technologies, such as whole genome sequencing, genome-wide transcription and proteome mapping facilitate large scale identification of genes and proteins. Mechanisms enabling GBS to cope with acid stress have mainly been studied through these techniques and are summarized in the current review

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      Genome analysis of multiple pathogenic isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: implications for the microbial "pan-genome".

      The development of efficient and inexpensive genome sequencing methods has revolutionized the study of human bacterial pathogens and improved vaccine design. Unfortunately, the sequence of a single genome does not reflect how genetic variability drives pathogenesis within a bacterial species and also limits genome-wide screens for vaccine candidates or for antimicrobial targets. We have generated the genomic sequence of six strains representing the five major disease-causing serotypes of Streptococcus agalactiae, the main cause of neonatal infection in humans. Analysis of these genomes and those available in databases showed that the S. agalactiae species can be described by a pan-genome consisting of a core genome shared by all isolates, accounting for approximately 80% of any single genome, plus a dispensable genome consisting of partially shared and strain-specific genes. Mathematical extrapolation of the data suggests that the gene reservoir available for inclusion in the S. agalactiae pan-genome is vast and that unique genes will continue to be identified even after sequencing hundreds of genomes.
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        Antimicrobial mechanisms of phagocytes and bacterial evasion strategies.

        Professional phagocytes have a vast and sophisticated arsenal of microbicidal features. They are capable of ingesting and destroying invading organisms, and can present microbial antigens on their surface, eliciting acquired immune responses. To survive this hostile response, certain bacterial species have developed evasive strategies that often involve the secretion of effectors to co-opt the cellular machinery of the host. In this Review, we present an overview of the antimicrobial defences of the host cell, with emphasis on macrophages, for which phagocytosis has been studied most extensively. In addition, using Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii as examples, we describe some of the evasive strategies used by bacteria.
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          Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease--revised guidelines from CDC, 2010.

          Despite substantial progress in prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease since the 1990s, GBS remains the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States. In 1996, CDC, in collaboration with relevant professional societies, published guidelines for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease (CDC. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease: a public health perspective. MMWR 1996;45[No. RR-7]); those guidelines were updated and republished in 2002 (CDC. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease: revised guidelines from CDC. MMWR 2002;51[No. RR-11]). In June 2009, a meeting of clinical and public health representatives was held to reevaluate prevention strategies on the basis of data collected after the issuance of the 2002 guidelines. This report presents CDC's updated guidelines, which have been endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Nurse-Midwives, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Society for Microbiology. The recommendations were made on the basis of available evidence when such evidence was sufficient and on expert opinion when available evidence was insufficient. The key changes in the 2010 guidelines include the following: • expanded recommendations on laboratory methods for the identification of GBS, • clarification of the colony-count threshold required for reporting GBS detected in the urine of pregnant women, • updated algorithms for GBS screening and intrapartum chemoprophylaxis for women with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes, • a change in the recommended dose of penicillin-G for chemoprophylaxis, • updated prophylaxis regimens for women with penicillin allergy, and • a revised algorithm for management of newborns with respect to risk for early-onset GBS disease. Universal screening at 35-37 weeks' gestation for maternal GBS colonization and use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has resulted in substantial reductions in the burden of early-onset GBS disease among newborns. Although early-onset GBS disease has become relatively uncommon in recent years, the rates of maternal GBS colonization (and therefore the risk for early-onset GBS disease in the absence of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis) remain unchanged since the 1970s. Continued efforts are needed to sustain and improve on the progress achieved in the prevention of GBS disease. There also is a need to monitor for potential adverse consequences of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (e.g., emergence of bacterial antimicrobial resistance or increased incidence or severity of non-GBS neonatal pathogens). In the absence of a licensed GBS vaccine, universal screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis continue to be the cornerstones of early-onset GBS disease prevention.

            Author and article information

            1Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Ulm Ulm, Germany
            2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University Ismailia, Egypt
            Author notes

            Edited by: Wolfgang Eisenreich, Technische Universität München, Germany

            Reviewed by: Peter Valentin-Weigand, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany; Sven Hammerschmidt, University of Greifswald, Germany

            *Correspondence: Barbara Spellerberg barbara.spellerberg@
            Front Cell Infect Microbiol
            Front Cell Infect Microbiol
            Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol.
            Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            07 September 2017
            : 7
            5594096 10.3389/fcimb.2017.00395
            Copyright © 2017 Shabayek and Spellerberg.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

            Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 154, Pages: 13, Words: 12161
            Funded by: Ministry of Higher Education 10.13039/501100002385


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