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      Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study

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          Summary

          Background

          In December, 2019, a pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) emerged in Wuhan, China. We aimed to further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia.

          Methods

          In this retrospective, single-centre study, we included all confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital from Jan 1 to Jan 20, 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and were analysed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and radiological features and laboratory data. Outcomes were followed up until Jan 25, 2020.

          Findings

          Of the 99 patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia, 49 (49%) had a history of exposure to the Huanan seafood market. The average age of the patients was 55·5 years (SD 13·1), including 67 men and 32 women. 2019-nCoV was detected in all patients by real-time RT-PCR. 50 (51%) patients had chronic diseases. Patients had clinical manifestations of fever (82 [83%] patients), cough (81 [82%] patients), shortness of breath (31 [31%] patients), muscle ache (11 [11%] patients), confusion (nine [9%] patients), headache (eight [8%] patients), sore throat (five [5%] patients), rhinorrhoea (four [4%] patients), chest pain (two [2%] patients), diarrhoea (two [2%] patients), and nausea and vomiting (one [1%] patient). According to imaging examination, 74 (75%) patients showed bilateral pneumonia, 14 (14%) patients showed multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity, and one (1%) patient had pneumothorax. 17 (17%) patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and, among them, 11 (11%) patients worsened in a short period of time and died of multiple organ failure.

          Interpretation

          The 2019-nCoV infection was of clustering onset, is more likely to affect older males with comorbidities, and can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. In general, characteristics of patients who died were in line with the MuLBSTA score, an early warning model for predicting mortality in viral pneumonia. Further investigation is needed to explore the applicability of the MuLBSTA score in predicting the risk of mortality in 2019-nCoV infection.

          Funding

          National Key R&D Program of China.

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          Most cited references3

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          Clinical findings in 111 cases of influenza A (H7N9) virus infection.

          During the spring of 2013, a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged and spread among humans in China. Data were lacking on the clinical characteristics of the infections caused by this virus. Using medical charts, we collected data on 111 patients with laboratory-confirmed avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) infection through May 10, 2013. Of the 111 patients we studied, 76.6% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), and 27.0% died. The median age was 61 years, and 42.3% were 65 years of age or older; 31.5% were female. A total of 61.3% of the patients had at least one underlying medical condition. Fever and cough were the most common presenting symptoms. On admission, 108 patients (97.3%) had findings consistent with pneumonia. Bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidation were the typical radiologic findings. Lymphocytopenia was observed in 88.3% of patients, and thrombocytopenia in 73.0%. Treatment with antiviral drugs was initiated in 108 patients (97.3%) at a median of 7 days after the onset of illness. The median times from the onset of illness and from the initiation of antiviral therapy to a negative viral test result on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay were 11 days (interquartile range, 9 to 16) and 6 days (interquartile range, 4 to 7), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of a coexisting medical condition was the only independent risk factor for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (odds ratio, 3.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 9.70; P=0.02). During the evaluation period, the novel H7N9 virus caused severe illness, including pneumonia and ARDS, with high rates of ICU admission and death. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others.).
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            Is Open Access

            Pathophysiology and burden of infection in patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral vascular disease: focus on skin and soft-tissue infections.

            Diabetes mellitus affects 284 million adults worldwide and is increasing in prevalence. Accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus contributes an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases including peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Immune dysfunction, diabetic neuropathy and poor circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially those with PVD, place these patients at high risk for many types of typical and atypical infections. Complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (cSSTIs) are of particular concern because skin breakdown in patients with advanced diabetes mellitus and PVD provides a portal of entry for bacteria. Patients with diabetes mellitus are more likely to be hospitalized with cSSTIs and to experience related complications than patients without diabetes mellitus. Patients with PVD requiring lower extremity bypass are also at high risk of surgical site and graft infections. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent causative pathogen in cSSTIs, and may be a significant contributor to surgical site infections, especially in patients who are colonized with MRSA on hospital admission. Patients with cSSTIs and diabetes mellitus or PVD experience lower clinical success rates than patients without these comorbidities, and may also have a longer length of hospital stay and higher risk of adverse drug events. Clinicians should be vigilant in recognizing the potential for infection with multi-drug-resistant organisms, especially MRSA, in these populations and initiating therapy with appropriate antibiotics.
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              Clinical features of three avian influenza H7N 9 virus‐infected patients in S hanghai

              Abstract Introduction Since February 2013, a novel reassortant H7N9 virus associated with human deaths, but no apparent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds has emerged in eastern China. Objectives The potential reemergence of H7N9 during next year's influenza season demand a further understanding of this important disease. Methods Between March 1 and April 30, 2013, we obtained and analyzed clinical, epidemiologic and radiologic features, and virologic data from three laboratory‐confirmed patients of A H7N9 infection admitted in Shanghai Ruijin Hospital. Results All patients were middle to old aged (mean age 62 years) and overweight (mean body mass index 31) patients. Two patients were exposed to poultry directly or indirectly in food market. They presented with fever and rapidly progressive pneumonia that did not respond to antibiotics. Time between onset of symptoms and onset of respiratory failure (days) were 7–11 days. Two patients presented secondary invasive bacterial infections. All patients died on day 7 to day 86 after the onset of symptoms. Conclusions Cross species poultry‐to‐person transmission of this new reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus can result in severe and fatal respiratory disease like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in humans. Reduplicate chest imaging examination is suggested for risky patients with fever and dyspnea. Secondary invasive bacterial infections and pneumothorax can cause severe and fatal consequence. Old age, obesity and presence of comorbidity may be associated with increased mortality. Pulmonary fibrosis can be seen at late stage of the disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Lancet
                Lancet
                Lancet (London, England)
                Elsevier Ltd.
                0140-6736
                1474-547X
                30 January 2020
                15-21 February 2020
                30 January 2020
                : 395
                : 10223
                : 507-513
                Affiliations
                [a ]Tuberculosis and Respiratory Department, Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China
                [b ]Infection Disease Department, Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China
                [c ]Science and Education Department, Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China
                [d ]The Office of Drug Clinical Trial Institution, Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China
                [e ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
                [f ]Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
                [g ]Research Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Ruijin Hospital and Ruijin Hospital North, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
                [h ]Clinical Research Center, Ruijin Hospital North, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
                [i ]State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: Prof Li Zhang, Tuberculosis and Respiratory Department, Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Dongxihu District, Wuhan 430023, China zhangli080806@ 123456163.com
                [** ]Prof Xinxin Zhang, Research Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Ruijin Hospital and Ruijin Hospital North, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China zhangx@ 123456shsmu.edu.cn
                [†]

                Contributed equally.

                Article
                S0140-6736(20)30211-7
                10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7
                7135076
                32007143
                1b39fb6d-9e48-4337-a63b-a78d1e1eea7b
                © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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