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      A sulfated polyphenols-rich extract from Sabal yapa exhibits antitumor activities in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma


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          Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality accounting for one in every six deaths globally. Plant secondary metabolites, among them polyphenols, represent an effective and much safer alternative approach to the currently available medications. In this work, utilizing LC-MS/MS, we characterized the constituents of S. yapa leaves extract and evaluated its antioxidant and anticancer properties. In total, 34 secondary metabolites, mainly flavonoids (Tricin, luteolin, and apigenin and their glucosides as well as sulfated derivatives) were identified. The extract manifested substantial antioxidant activity in DPPH assay, and high total phenolic content determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The extract was safe up to 4800 mg/kg b.wt. when administered orally in mice and neither affected the hematological parameters nor the liver enzyme levels at the studied dose (LD 50, 480 mg, kg b.wt.). In the treated animals, the extract surpassed the reference drug (5-flouro uracil) and significantly reduced the tumor volume and weight by 71.50 and 85.46%, respectively, increased the median survival time to 53.2 days and the lifespan by 116%. The extract improved all the hematological parameters, where it increased the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PVC) and platelets by 58.21, 8.98, 9.89 and 120%, respectively, compared to the untreated EAC bearing animals. Additionally, the extract significantly declined the elevated levels of ALT and AST enzymes by 29.18% and 59.88%, respectively. In molecular docking, the annotated flavonoids displayed appreciable binding affinities to the active sites of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. In conclusion, Saba yapa is a promising plant that can be introduced to further advanced clinical studies for the development of novel anticancer drugs with lower side effects.

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          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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              Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability.

              Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is emerging. The health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and on their bioavailability. In this article, the nature and contents of the various polyphenols present in food sources and the influence of agricultural practices and industrial processes are reviewed. Estimates of dietary intakes are given for each class of polyphenols. The bioavailability of polyphenols is also reviewed, with particular focus on intestinal absorption and the influence of chemical structure (eg, glycosylation, esterification, and polymerization), food matrix, and excretion back into the intestinal lumen. Information on the role of microflora in the catabolism of polyphenols and the production of some active metabolites is presented. Mechanisms of intestinal and hepatic conjugation (methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation), plasma transport, and elimination in bile and urine are also described. Pharmacokinetic data for the various polyphenols are compared. Studies on the identification of circulating metabolites, cellular uptake, intracellular metabolism with possible deconjugation, biological properties of the conjugated metabolites, and specific accumulation in some target tissues are discussed. Finally, bioavailability appears to differ greatly between the various polyphenols, and the most abundant polyphenols in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. A thorough knowledge of the bioavailability of the hundreds of dietary polyphenols will help us to identify those that are most likely to exert protective health effects.

                Author and article information

                Saudi J Biol Sci
                Saudi J Biol Sci
                Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
                21 February 2021
                May 2021
                21 February 2021
                : 28
                : 5
                : 3117-3125
                [a ]Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt
                [b ]Department of Phytochemistry and Plant Systematics, Pharmaceutical Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt
                [c ]Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt
                [d ]College of Engineering and Technology, American University of the Middle East, Kuwait
                [e ]AgroBioSciences Program, University Mohammed VI Polytechnic, Lot 660, Hay Moulay Rachid, 43150 Benguerir, Morocco
                Author notes
                © 2021 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 22 November 2020
                : 10 February 2021
                : 15 February 2021
                Original Article

                sabal yapa,ehrlich ascites carcinoma,sulfated polyphenols,vascular endothelial growth factor b receptor


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